Table 1

Relative Rates of Past Six-Month Substance Use and Individual-Level Risk Factors

Hispanic

Caucasian

African-American

American Indian/Alaska Native

Test for Difference


Alcohol Quantity and Frequency (Abbrev. RAPI)

.20a (.77)

.34a (.78)

-.07b (.81)

.19ab (.69)

F(3,430) = 4.19, p < .01

Tobacco

Age at first use

13.00a (2.38)

12.15b (2.79)

13.21a (2.57)

12.68ab (2.11)

F(3,418) = 3.21, p < .05

Number of cigarettes per day*

3.89a (2.33)

5.11b (2.31)

4.16a (2.33)

4.58ab (2.59)

F(3,426) = 6.00, p < .001


Marijuana

Age at first use

11.39a (2.44)

11.49ab (2.37)

12.23b (2.19)

11.69ab (2.27)

F(3,548) = 3.93, p < .01

Frequency of marijuana use**

5.79 (2.66)

6.23 (2.71)

5.69 (2.77)

5.54 (2.93)

F(3,388) = .85, p = .47


Hard Drug Composite

Number of hard drugs used

.61a (1.26)

1.05b (1.49)

.20c (.58)

.69ab (1.38)

F(3,633) = 11.31, p < .001


In School (% yes)

79.3% a

72.2% b

92.4% c

76.5% b

χ²(3, n = 649) = 21.38, p < .001


Working (% yes)

20.9%

20.4%

18.8%

22.0%

χ²(3, n = 651) = .46, p = .93


Self esteem

3.32 ab (.50)

3.24 b (.56)

3.43a (.45)

3.32 ab (.50)

F(3,647) = 3.62, p = .01

Reliability by group (α)

.72

.83

.71

.79


Externalizing behavior

1.59 a (.29)

1.72 b (.29)

1.60a (.31)

1.75 b (.31)

F(3,647) = 9.85, p < .001

Reliability by group (α)

.88

.87

.88

.88


Note: Means not sharing the same subscript are significantly different at p < .05 controlling for experimentwise error rate. All standard deviations are represented in parentheses ( ) underneath the respective mean value.

*1-10 scale where 1 = none, 2 = 1 cigarette, 3 = 2-3 cigarettes, 4 = 4-6 cigarettes, 5 = 7-9 cigarettes, 6 = 10-12 cigarettes, 7 = 13-15 cigarettes, 8 = 16-18 cigarettes, 9-19-20 cigarettes, 10 = more than 20 cigarettes

**1-8 scale where 1 = occasionally, 2 = once a month, 3 = 2-3 times a month, 4 = 4-5 times a month, 5 = once a week, 6 = 2-3 times a week, 7 = 4-5 times a week, 8 = every day

Feldstein Ewing et al. BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:71   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-11-71

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