Table 4

Adolescent measures and outcome

Scales

Outcome

Ranging

Examples

Scores


The Perceived

Competence Scale

(PCD) 5-item

Experience of own

competence

Ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree)

"I feel confident in my ability to manage my diabetes"

Produces a total sum score from 5- 35. A high sum score represents a high level of perceived competence


The Health-Care Climate

Questionnaire (HCCQ) 5 -item

Perceptions of

autonomy support

from HCP

Ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree)

"I feel that my HCPs have provided me choices and options about handling my diabetes"

Produces a total sum score from 5-35. A high sum score represents a high level of perceived autonomy support


The Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ) 21-item

Consists of 3 subscales

The degree in which patients'

behaviour is

self-determined

Ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree)

(I) Autonomous; "It's exciting to try to keep my blood sugar in a healthy range"

(II) Controlled; "I want my HCP to think I am a good patient"

(III) A-motivated; "I do not know why I do try - I will not bee successful"

Produces sum scores for each of three subscales, Autonomous from 8-56, Controlled 9-63, Amotivated 4-28. High sum scores indicate high levels of autonomy, controlled or amotivated behaviour. A Relative Autonomy Index is calculates by subtracting the controlled scores from the autonomous scores. The higher relative autonomy index the higher is motivation based on autonomy compared to control


The Problem Areas

In Diabetes scale (PAID) 20-item

Perception of current emotional burden of diabetes related issues

Ranging from 0 (not a problem) to 4 (serious problem)

"Feelings of guilt or anxiety when you get off track with your diabetes management"

Produces a total score from 0-100 by summing up and multiplying this sum by 1.25. Higher scores indicate greater emotional distress. Cut points:

≥30 elevated distress

≥40 serious distress


The Perception of Parents Scale (POPS) 26-item

Consists of 2 sub-scales, mothers & fathers

Perception of

autonomy support

and involvement

from parents

Ranging from 1 (not at all true) to 7 (very true)

(I) Mother/Father Autonomy Support;

"My mother/father allows me to decide things for myself"

(II)Mother/Father Involvement;

"My mother/father finds time to talk with me"

Produces a total sum score from 13-91 in each subscale. High sum scores represent a high level of mother/father autonomy support/involvement


The WHO5 Well-Being Index 5-item

Emotional

Well-being

Ranging from 0 (not present)

to 5 (constantly present).

"I have felt cheerful and in

good spirits for the last

two weeks"

Produces a total score from 0-100 by summing up and multiplying a sum score by 4. Higher scores indicate greater emotional distress. Cut points:

< 50 poor emotional well-being

≤ 28 indicate depression


Husted et al. BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:55   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-11-55

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