Table 1

Distribution of Birth Defects in the Treatment and Control Associated Groups

Birth Defect Type

Control group

Treatment group

Total study sample


Frequency

Percent

Frequency

Percent

Frequency

Percent


Abdominal wall defect

7

1.88

5

1.04

12

1.40

Anencephaly

9

2.41

5

1.04

14

1.64

Spina bifida

4

1.07

2

0.41

6

0.70

Brain defect

28

7.51

41

8.49

69

8.06

Cephalocele

3

0.80

8

1.66

11

1.29

Eye anomaly

14

3.75

22

4.55

36

4.21

Microtia

10

2.68

23

4.76

33

3.86

Congenital heart defect

32

8.58

48

9.94

80

9.35

Lung hypoplasia

1

0.27

2

0.41

3

0.35

Esophageal atresia

3

0.80

4

0.83

7

0.82

Gut anomaly

2

0.54

3

0.62

5

0.58

Genitalia defect

13

3.49

15

3.11

28

3.27

Kidney defect

7

1.88

23

4.76

30

3.50

Talipes

27

7.24

31

6.42

58

6.78

Polydactyly

26

6.97

17

3.52

43

5.02

Syndactyly

10

2.68

8

1.66

18

2.10

Limb reduction defect

7

1.88

17

3.52

24

2.80

Hip dislocation

1

0.27

2

0.41

3

0.35

Arthrogryposis

7

1.88

4

0.83

11

1.29

Axial defect

10

2.68

3

0.62

13

1.52

Hydrops

2

0.54

0

0.00

2

0.23

Situs inversus

1

0.27

0

0.00

1

0.12

Syndromes

24

6.43

17

3.52

41

4.79

Minor anomalies

90

24.13

143

29.61

233

27.22

Other anomalies

35

9.38

40

8.28

75

8.76


The Table reports the distribution of all the other birth defects besides CL/P observed in the associated cases. Minor anomalies angioma, neonatal tooth, gum/tongue anomaly, undescended testes, nevus, micorgnathia and other minor anomalies. Other anomalies include other eye anomalies, anomalies of the neck, nose, trachea, skull shape and muscle. Also included are other unspecified birth defects (1 birth defect in the control group and 17 birth defects in the treatment group). The distributions of birth defect types between the treatment and control groups are different at p = 0.027 based on a chi-square test of independence. However, the test result should be viewed with caution given the very low frequencies of several birth defect types.

Wehby et al. BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:121   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-11-121

Open Data