Table 9

Secondary Amino Acids.

Amino Acids

Neuro-typicals

(n = 44)

Arizona Treatment Group

(n = 18)

Arizona Placebo Group

(n = 20)


Pre

Post

% change

p-value

Pre

Post

% change

p-value


1-Methyl histidine

0.355

+/- 0.12

0.354

+/- 0.15

0.369

+/- 0.10

+4%

n.s.

0.407

+/- 0.14

0.329

+/- 0.094

-19%

0.05


3-Methyl histidine

0.68

+/- 0.52

0.68

+/- 0.55

0.54

+/- 0.46

-21%

n.s.

0.83

+/- 0.88

0.470

+/- 0.35

-43%

0.10


Alpha-amino adipate

(31%/27% below dl)

0.088

+/- 0.044

0.084

+/- 0.035

0.099

+/- 0.052

+17%

n.s.

0.079

+/- 0.031

0.095

+/- 0.053

+20%

n.s.


Alpha-amino-N-butyrate

1.82

+/- 0.72

1.81

+/- 0.60

1.55

+/- 0.52

-15%

n.s.

1.68

+/- 0.58

1.60

+/- 0.50

-5%

n.s.


Anserine

(84%/95% below dl)

0.051

+/- 0.005

0.055

+/- 0.019

0.0054

+/- 0.016

-1%

n.s.

0.052

+/- 0.0078

All results below detectable limit

-3%

n.s.


Beta-alanine

0.62

+/- 0.31

0.57

+/- 0.23

0.60

+/- 0.18

+6%

n.s.

0.72

+/- 0.35

0.58

+/- 0.16

-20%

n.s.


Beta-amino isobutyrate

0.138

+/- 0.088

0.170

+/- 0.070

0.162

+/- 0.077

-5%

n.s.

0.172

+/- 0.077

0.170

+/- 0.072

-1%

n.s.


Carnosine

(73%/84% below dl)

0.054

+/- 0.015

0.063

+/- 0.042

(All results below dl)

-21%

n.s.

0.056

+/- 0.020

0.050

+/- 0.001

-11%

n.s.


Citrulline

3.02

+/- 0.52

3.02

+/- 0.69

3.34

+/- 0.98

+10%

n.s.

3.02

+/- 1.0

3.15

+/- 0.80

+4%

n.s.


Ethanol amine

0.94

+/- 0.63

1.15

+/- 0.90

0.81

+/- 0.47

-29%

n.s.

0.90

+/- 0.68

0.86

+/- 0.41

-4%

n.s.


Gamma-amino butyrate

(75%/84% below dl)

0.053

+/- 0.008

0.053

+/- 0.08

0.053

+/- 0.007

-1%

n.s.

0.053

+/- 0.006

0.051

+/- 0.004

-3%

n.s.


Homocystine + Homocysteine

(69%/86% below dl)

0.0055

+/- 0.0016

0.0087

+/- 0.0051

0.0057

+/- 0.0014

-34%

0.02

0.0078

+/- 0.0068

0.0054

+/- 0.0010

-30%

n.s.


Hydroxy proline

2.19

+/- 0.80

2.34

+/- 0.90

1.92

+/- 0.58

-18%

0.03

2.54

+/- 0.63

2.15

+/- 0.51

-15%

0.04


Methionine Sulfoxide

0.315

+/- 0.21

0.371

+/- 0.22

0.335

+/- 0.16

-10%

n.s.

0.341

+/- 0.15

0.432

+/- 0.30

+27%

n.s.


Ornithine

6.0

+/- 1.7

5.0

+/- 1.2

6.5

+/- 1.9

+29%

0.008

6.3

+/- 1.8

6.00

+/- 1.4

-5%

n.s.


Phospho ethanol amine

1.55

+/- 0.58

1.32

+/- 1.0

1.53

+/- 0.55

+16%

n.s.

1.51

+/- 0.56

1.80

+/- 0.56

+19%

n.s.


Phospho serine

0.024

+/- 0.044

0.055

+/- 1.0

0.015

+/- 0.007

-73%

n.s.

0.058

+/- 0.08

0.017

+/- 0.009

-70%

0.05


Sarcosine

0.89

+/- 0.36

0.78

+/- 0.32

1.06

+/- 0.35

+35%

0.01

0.85

+/- 0.34

1.12

+/- 0.38

+32%

0.01


Taurine

16.8

+/- 5.8

13.7

+/- 6.1

17.7

+/- 5.7

+29%

0.07

15.5

+/- 5.8

19.9

+/- 5.9

+28%

0.03


Urea

309

+/- 87

329

+/- 105

270

+/- 62

-18%

0.04

257

+/- 71

252.

+/- 106

-2%

n.s.


The average levels of secondary amino acids in plasma (in units of micromoles per 100 ml) measured in the Neurotypical group and the Autism Treatment and Autism Placebo groups (pre and post) who completed the study are reported below, along with their standard deviations. The p-value for a t-test comparison of the change in the level is reported. If the p-value is below 0.05, then the result is highlighted. In some cases data was below the detectable limit -if this was greater than 20%, then we report the data as the % of the autism group and then the % of the neurotypical group below the detectable limit (dl).

Adams et al. BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:111   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-11-111

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