Table 4

Vitamins: The average levels of vitamins measured in the Neurotypical group and the Autism Treatment and Autism Placebo groups (pre and post) who completed the study are reported below, along with their standard deviations.

Vitamins

Units

Neuro-typicals

(n = 44)

Arizona Treatment Group

(N = 18)

Arizona Placebo Group

(N = 22)


Pre

Post

% change

p-value

Pre

Post

% change

p-value


Vit. A (plasma)

ug/100 ml

54.9

+/- 12

62.3

+/- 12

59.0

+/-13

-5%

n.s.

50.2

+/- 7.2

52.9

+/-13

+5%

n.s.


Total Carotenes

(beta carotene and other carotenes, in plasma)

ug/

100 ml

178

+/-53

158

+/- 53

170

+/- 65

+7%

n.s.

136

+/- 53

150

+/-59

+10%

n.s.


Vit B1

Thiamine

(WB)

ug/l

63

+/-9

63

+/- 12

80

+/-12

+27%

0.0005

65

+/-9

65

+/-11

0%

n.s.


Vit B2

Riboflavin

(WB)

ug/l

282

+/-52

291

+/- 42

295

+/-36

1%

n.s.

272

+/- 45

262

+/-55

-3%

n.s.


Vit B3

Niacin and Niacinamide

(WB)

ug/l

7.07

+/-1.0

6.7

+/- 1.1

7.3

+/-0.9

+9%

0.04

7.1

+/- 1.3

7.2

+/-1.0

+1%

n.s.


Vit B5

Pantothenic Acid

(WB)

ug/l

714

+/-180

654

+/- 104

748

+/-170

+14%

0.06

600

+/- 117

629

+/-159

+5%

n.s.


Vit B6 (as P5P in RBC)

ug/l

15.2

+/-5.3

20.3

+/- 15

58.1

+/-24

+187%

0.00001

17.8

+/- 14

16.1

+/-11

-10%

n.s.


Folic Acid (serum)

ug/l

18.7

+/-6.1

20.1

+/- 7.5

26.3

+/-7.1

+31%

0.03

15.3

+/- 4.8

17.8

+/-8.2

17%

0.09


Vit B12

(plasma)

ng/l

676

+/-215

696

+/- 231

835

+/-259

+20%

0.002

690

+/- 240

639

+/-246

-7%

n.s.


Vit C

(plasma)

mg/

100 ml

1.33

+/-0.46

1.59

+/- 0.60

2.08

+/-0.34

+31%

0.007

1.60

+/- 0.59

1.55

+/-0.51

-3%

n.s.


Vit D3

(25-hydroxy in plasma)

ug/l

28.6+/-8.5

29.6

+/- 8.3

25.4

+/-6.2

-14%

0.04

28.9

+/- 8.7

25.9

+/-7.8

-10%

n.s.


Total Vit E (serum)

mg/

100 ml

0.90

+/-0.32

0.78

+/- 0.16

0.97

+/-0.21

+24%

0.002

0.75

+/- 0.19

0.84

+/-0.24

+12%

n.s.


Biotin (WB)

ng/l

491

+/-164

395

+/- 115

595

+/-225

+51%

0.008

377

+/- 88

527

+/-162

+40%

0.001


Vit K (plasma)

nmol/l

295

+/- 189

288

+/- 116

330

+/- 165

+15%

n.s.

317

+/- 197

277

+/- 98

-13%

n.s.


Vitamin-like substances


Free Choline

(RBC)

mg/l

5.6

+/- 1.7

6.7

+/- 3.5

5.9

+/- 2.0

-12%

n.s.

6.4

+/- 2.3

7.0

+/- 1.7

+10%

n.s.


Total Choline

(RBC)

mg/l

310

+/- 51.4

363

+/- 59

343

+/- 43

-5%

n.s.

361

+/- 67

368

+/- 42

+2%

n.s.


Lipoic Acid

(plasma)

ug/l

2.9

+/- 1.2

3.1

+/- 1.8

2.3

+/- 0.7

-22%

n.s.

2.3

+/- 1.5

2.1

+/- 1.2

-9%

n.s.


Biomarkers of functional need for vitamins


FIGLU

ug/l

1.62

+/- 0.72

1.87

+/- 0.93

1.32

+/- 0.64

-29%

0.01

2.11

+/- 0.91

1.85

+/- 0.98

-12%

n.s.


Methylmalonic Acid

mg/g-creat

7.2

+/- 4.8

8.2

+/- 5.6

4.8

+/- 4.2

-41%

0.03

6.7

+/- 5.7

8.7

+/- 10.4

+30%

n.s.


N-methyl-nicotinamide

mg/g-creat

3.44

+/- 2.1

4.62

+/- 3.5

3.1

+/- 1.6

-33%

n.s.

4.94

+/- 5.1

5.15

+/- 3.1

+4%

n.s.


Kryptopyrroles

ug/dl

35.8

+/- 15

38.0

+/- 23

36.2

+/- 29

-5%

n.s.

40.3

+/- 29

38.1

+/- 24

-5%

n.s.


The p-value for a t-test comparison of the change in the level is reported. If the p-value is below 0.05 then the result is highlighted.

Adams et al. BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:111   doi:10.1186/1471-2431-11-111

Open Data