Table 6 

Standardized Regression Coefficients (βs) Predicting 1990 Antisocial Behavior from Four 1988 Disciplinary Tactics and Psychotherapy by Covariate for PreExisting Behavior Problems After Dropping Cases Using No Disciplinary Tactics of Any Kind 

Covariate for Initial Behavior Problems 
Spank 
Grounding 
Remove Privileges 
Send to Room 
Psychotherapy 



None 

Zeroorder r 
.22*** 
.22*** 
.08^{d} 
.01 
.14** 

Controlling for other predictors^{a} 
.11^{d} 
.15*** 
.04 
.03 
.38** 

Antisocial Behavior 1988^{a} 

Dichotomous 
.09 
.14** 
.06 
.02 
.30* 

Trichotomous 
.08 
.11** 
.08 
.05 
.23 

Continuous 
.08 
.13* 
.06 
.03 
.24 

Externalizing Behavior 1988^{a} 

Continuous (measured variable) 
.08 
.08 
.05 
.05 
.24 

Continuous (latent variable)^{b} 
.03 
.04 
.04 
.05 
.02 

Gain in Latent Externalizing^{c} 
.03 
.07 
.02 
.02 
.01 



Note. N = 571 for the disciplinary tactics; 570 for psychotherapy. A positive β indicates that those receiving the disciplinary tactic in 1988 averaged higher 1990 antisocial behavior than those not receiving that disciplinary tactic, after controlling for the variables indicated. The βs are based on linear associations for the first row and the last 2 rows. The other βs are based on the effect size contrasting the weighted marginal mean antisocial behavior for one or more occurrences of the disciplinary actions (or seeing a psychotherapist) vs. the mean antisocial behavior associated with no occurrences of the disciplinary action or psychotherapy. ^{a}The "other predictors" were those in the ANCOVA in Straus et al. [1]: gender, ethnicity, SES, cognitive stimulation, emotional support, and the 2way interactions of the disciplinary tactic with each of those predictors. The 2way interactions were not included in the structural equation modeling or the gain in latent externalizing problems. ^{b}The latent structural equation modeling analyses estimate linear associations between the frequency of each disciplinary tactic and Antisocial behavior in 1990, controlling for the other predictors in the model, including latent Externalizing problems, which has three indicators (Antisocial, Hyperactivity, and Headstrong), with correlated residuals between the latter two subscales. Fit indices: χ^{2}s (13, N = 571) from 34.67 to 37.49, ps from .0003 to .0010; CFIs from .964 to .968; RMSEAs from .054 to .057. ^{c}This row summarizes the only analyses predicting the 16item Externalizing score in 1990, in this case in terms of gain scores in that latent score from 1988 to 1990 (see Figure 2). Fit indices: χ^{2}s (12, N = 571) from 10.88 to 15.65, ps from .19 to .54; CFIs from .980 to 1.000; RMSEAs from .000 to .024. ^{d}P < .10. *P < .05. **P < .01. ***P < .001. 

Larzelere et al. BMC Pediatrics 2010 10:10 doi:10.1186/147124311010 