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Ocular rhinosporidiosis mimicking conjunctival squamous papilloma in Kenya – a case report

Stephen Gichuhi12*, Timothy Onyuma3, Ephantus Macharia4, Joy Kabiru4, Alain M’bongo Zindamoyen4, Mandeep S Sagoo56 and Matthew J Burton25

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Ophthalmology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya

2 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK

3 Department of Pathology, MP Shah Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya

4 PCEA Kikuyu Hospital Eye Unit, Kikuyu, Kenya

5 Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK

6 UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London, UK

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BMC Ophthalmology 2014, 14:45  doi:10.1186/1471-2415-14-45

Published: 8 April 2014



Ocular rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by a newly classified organism that is neither a fungus nor bacterium. It often presents as a benign conjunctival tumour but may mimic other ocular conditions. It is most often described in India. In Africa cases have been reported from South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Uganda, Congo and Ivory Coast.

Case presentation

A 54 year old man was seen in Kenya with a lesion that resembled a conjunctival papilloma. We report resemblance to conjunctival papilloma and the result of vital staining with 0.05% Toluidine Blue.


Ocular rhinosporidiosis occurs in East Africa. It may resemble conjunctival squamous papilloma. Vital staining with 0.05% Toluidine blue dye did not distinguish the two lesions well.

Ocular rhinosporidiosis; Rhinosporidium seeberi; Conjunctival papilloma; Toluidine-blue; Africa