Table 1

Potential 73 Risk Factors for Late Age-related macular degeneration, Identified in the Initial Review

Ocular factors (n = 15)

• Nuclear opacity

• Cortical opacity

• Pterygium

• Lens opacity

• Horizontal cup-to-disc ratio

• Fellow eye

Iris color*

• Eye disease*

Cataract/Cataract surgery*

• Arcus cornea

• Arterioar-to-venular ratio

• Frekling

• Spherical equivalents

• Eye glasses for distance vision

Family history of AMD

Cardiovascular factors (n = 7)

• Atherosclerosis

History of CVD and cerebrovascular disease*

Serum Total Cholesterol leveland Serum HDL Cholesterol level

Hypertension*

• Plasma antioxidants

Other medical conditions or marker (n = 8)

• Biochemical variables* including serum albumin, C-Reactive Protein,*plasma fibrinogen,and serum triglyceride)

• Bone mineral density

Diabetes*

• Arthritis

• Menopause

Diet (n = 11)

• Dietary intake

• Fat*

• Animal fat*

• Vegetable fat*

• Linoleic acid

• ∞-3 fatty acids EPA/DHA

• Antioxidants*

• Saturated fat

• Monounsaturated fat

• Polyunsaturated fat

• Trans-unsaturated fat

Medications (n = 9)

• Birth control use

• Diuretics use

• Antacid use

• Antihypertensive medication use

• Anti-inflammatory drug use

• Hydrochlorothiazide use

• Hormone replacement therapy

• Hormones (women)

• Hypnotics/sedative

Life style (n = 3)

Smoking*

• Alcohol consumption

• Physical activity level

Light and other exposures (n = 3)

• Place of birth

• Solar radiation/outdoor exposure*

• Chemical exposure

Genetics (n = 9)

• fibulin 5

• CST3

• CX3CR

• TLR4

• VEGF

• LRP6

• MMP9

• HLA family of genes

• CFH

Demographics (n = 8)

Gender*

Age*

Race/ethnicity*

• Education*

Weight/Body mass index*

• Waist circumference

• Height

• Marital status


Chakravarthy et al. BMC Ophthalmology 2010 10:31   doi:10.1186/1471-2415-10-31

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