Over expression of 9-O-acetylated sialoglycoproteins (Neu5,9Ac2-GPs, abbreviated as OAcSGP) has been demonstrated as a disease-associated antigen on the lymphoblasts of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Achatinin-H, a lectin, has selective affinity towards terminal 9-O-acetylated sialic acids-α2-6-Nacetylated galactosamine. Exploring this affinity, enhanced expression of OAcSGP was observed, at the onset of disease, followed by its decrease with chemotherapy and reappearance with relapse. In spite of treatment, patients retain the diseased cells referred to as minimal residual disease (MRD) responsible for relapse. Our aim was to select a suitable template by using the differential expression of OAcSGP along with other known CD antigens to monitor MRD in peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) of Indian patients with B- or T-ALL during treatment and correlate it with the disease status.
A two-year longitudinal follow-up study was done with 109 patients from the onset of the disease till the end of chemotherapy, treated under MCP841protocol. Paired samples of PB (n = 1667) and BM (n = 999) were monitored by flow cytometry. Three templates selected for this investigation were OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ for B-ALL and OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ for T-ALL.
Using each template the level of MRD detection reached 0.01% for a patient in clinical remission (CR). 81.65% of the patients were in CR during these two years while the remaining relapsed. Failure in early clearance of lymphoblasts, as indicated by higher MRD, implied an elevated risk of relapse. Soaring MRD during the chemotherapeutic regimen predicted clinical relapse, at least a month before medical manifestation. Irrespective of B- or T-lineage ALL, the MRD in PB and BM correlated well.
A range of MRD values can be predicted for the patients in CR, irrespective of their lineage, being 0.03 ± 0.01% (PB) and 0.05 ± 0.015% (BM). These patients may not be stated as normal with respect to the presence of MRD. Hence, MRD study beyond two-years follow-up is necessary to investigate further reduction in MRD, thereby ensuring their disease-free survival. Therefore, we suggest use of these templates for MRD detection, during and post-chemotherapy for proper patient management strategies, thereby helping in personalizing the treatment.
Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a malignant transformation of lymphoblasts, representing the single commonest type of cancer in paediatric population. With the dawn of modern chemotherapy, virtually all children attain remission and approximately 80% are cured, but the risk of relapse remains as about 20% patients in clinical remission (CR) harbour residual leukemic blasts referred to as minimal residual disease (MRD) . The situation is however dissimilar in India. Data from various Indian cancer registries suggest occurrence of approximately 10,000 new cases of childhood ALL every year. Very few of these patients are adequately treated, and the majority die from their disease due to post-chemotherapeutic relapse. This contrasts with present cure rates of Western countries .
Considering this growing number of relapse in patients, post-chemotherapy, we intended to identify their disease status during the two-year treatment period. To get to the bottom of this problem, an unambiguous template for the identification of a specific combination of CD antigens on the lymphoblasts was essential, which is easily evident and stably expressed at the onset of ALL and whose altered expression could be an index for consistent monitoring of the disease status, during and post-chemotherapy.
Neuraminic acids commonly known as sialic acids, a family of 9-carbon carboxylated monosaccharides are important constituents of the cell membrane influencing many biologic reactions either by reacting with specific surface receptors or via masking the carbohydrate recognition sites [3-5]. Amongst the multiple variations of sialic acid, the most frequently occurring substitutions are O-acetylation, especially at C-9 position generating a family of 9-O-acetylated sialoglycoproteins henceforth abbreviated as OAcSGP. Sialic acid binding lectins and/or monoclonal antibodies (mAb) is commonly used to study sialylation patterns [3,6-9]. 9-O-acetylated sialoglycans are detectable at low levels on normal human B-lymphocytes and their consistent decrease has been observed in some disease . Pathological variations of the sialoglycans are also encountered [10,11]. However, their detailed biological significance, especially as a potential biomarker in ALL remains ambiguous.
The preferential affinity of a lectin, Achatinin-H, towards terminal N-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminic acids-α2-6-N acetylated galactosamine (Neu5,9Ac2α2-6GalNAc) [12-14] allowed us to identify an enhanced disease-associated expression of molecules having terminal Neu5,9Ac2α2-6GalNAc as sialo-glycotope on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of ALL patient [3,15-20]. In contrast, a basal level of expression of OAcSGP in normal individuals and patients with other cross-reactive haematological disorders such as chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), thalassemia and aplastic anaemia confirmed the specificity of this biomarker [3,15-20]. These OAcSGPs are highly immunogenic [21-24], found as immune-complexed OAcSGP in the patients' sera , and play a prominent role in promoting the survival of these lymphoblasts [26-28].
Cyto-morphological criteria are insufficient because the threshold of detection of leukemic cells is only 1–5%. MRD is usually detected by flow-cytometric immunophenotyping or PCR analysis of breakpoint fusion regions of chromosome aberrations and by detection of clone-specific immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements. Modern treatment protocols utilize the biological and clinical information to tailor the intensity of therapy to the risk of relapse. Recent MRD study shows that monitoring children at consecutive time point gives clinically relevant insight into the effectiveness of the treatment [29,30].
Therefore, in this investigation, our endeavour was to monitor the differential expression of OAcSGP along with the aberrant expression of other known B and T lineage-specific CD antigens from the peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) of paediatric ALL patients at the onset of the disease and during chemotherapy, as per the MCP841 protocol. Accordingly, we have longitudinally monitored 109 patients, each patient providing PB-18 times and BM-11 times respectively throughout the two-year treatment regimen, by triple colour flow-cytometric analysis for the detection of MRD, using the same template for an individual.
The present study reports (i) high expression of OAcSGP along with B-(CD10+CD19+ or CD19+CD34+) or T-(CD7+CD3+) lineage-specific CD markers in paired samples of PB and BM from individual patients at the onset of the disease which decreases during clinical remission (CR), (ii) detection level of MRD to be 1 in 104 lymphocytes, (iii) failure in early clearance of these lymphoblasts during the initial few weeks of treatment can be a bad prognosis, associated with high risk of relapse during maintenance, (iv) high MRD few weeks prior to clinical relapse, (v) a good correlation between the MRD in PB and BM in both B- and T-ALL during treatment. Thus, we propose that MRD detection technique used in this study may be beneficial for the long term monitoring of the disease status of these children and for modifying the intensification of chemotherapy accordingly.
The study population included PB and BM from children detected for ALL, at diagnosis and at various stages of treatment. The diagnostic samples comprised of males and females, ratio being 2:1, median age (6 years; range 0.8–16 years) and median presenting white blood cell count (12 × 109/L, range 0.4 – 1,000 × 109/L). Diagnosis was established by cytological examination of the BM smears according to the French-American-British Group recommendations, belonging to L1 or L2 and by cytogenetic study. Immunophenotype of each sample was done by flow-cytometric analysis using phycoerythrin (PE), PECy5 and biotin (B) conjugated antibodies against terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT), cytoplasmic μ (cyt-μ), surface membrane Ig (SIg), CD2, CD3, CD4, CD7, CD8, CD10, CD13, CD19, CD20, CD33, CD34 and CD45. These children at diagnosis had morphological blasts ranging between 40–90%. Three groups of patients were identified based on the presence of certain cell surface antigens. The B-ALL patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of CD10; those with more than 60% of CD10+ and CD19+ cells were placed in one group while the second group had more than 55% of CD34+ and CD19+ cells. T-ALL patients had more than 85% CD7+ cells and about 20% CD3+ cells. These patients concurrently showed high level of OAcSGP on the lymphoblasts, based on their high binding with flourescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugated Achatinin-H [15,16,19,20] and high intensity of anti-OAcSGP antibodies in their serum using an in house ELISA at the onset of disease [22,23]. Venous blood (4 – 5 ml) and BM (100 – 1000 μl) were collected at Kothari Medical Sciences and sent to Indian Institute of Chemical Biology. Informed consent was obtained from donors, patients and parents/guardians. The Institutional Human Ethical Committee as per the protocol of Indian Council of Medical Research approved the study.
These children were treated under MCP841 protocol (two-year duration) as reported by Advani et al . The phases of treatment were broadly grouped as follows – induction 1 (0 – 5 weeks), induction 2 (6 – 8 weeks), repeat induction 1 (9 – 13 weeks) and consolidation (14 – 18 weeks) followed by six cycles of maintenance (each cycle comprises of about 14 weeks). PB samples were collected at presentation, each week during induction 1, twice during induction 2, once during repeat induction, twice during consolidation, at the beginning of maintenance 1 and at the end of each maintenance, being 18 times from each patient while BM samples were collected at presentation, once during induction 1, induction 2, repeat induction, consolidation, at the beginning of maintenance 1 and at the end of each maintenance, being 11 times from each patient.
In this study 130 children were monitored at diagnosis with paired samples of PB and BM. However, 21 of them could not be monitored, as they did not arrive at the health centre after diagnosis. As this study remains confined to the longitudinal follow-up of the patients during the treatment protocol of MCP841, we have excluded these patients from the data represented here. From the remaining 109 patients, who received treatment from this health centre for two-years under the MCP841 protocol, we studied 2675 follow-up samples [PB (n = 1667); BM (n = 999)]. Controls included normal age matched healthy individuals (n = 50) of both sexes and other haematological diseases like AML, CML, CLL, NHL and aplastic anaemia (n = 50).
The lectin, Achatinin-H was purified from haemolymph of the African giant land snail Achatina fulica by affinity chromatography using bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM) as the affinity matrix . Purified Achatinin-H was filter sterilized and stored at 4°C. The preferential affinity of Achatinin-H towards Neu5,9Ac2α2-6GalNAc was established  and the lectin conjugated with FITC was used as an analytical probe for all experiments.
The mAbs (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA) used for the MRD assay were PE conjugated CD10 or CD34 or CD7 and B conjugated CD19 or CD3. The signals generated by the B-antibodies were captured using Streptavidin-PerCP.
a. Standardization of dose of Achatinin-H
Different doses of FITC-Achatinin-H [0.02–0.2 μg/10 μl, dilution in TBS-Ca2+], were separately incubated with 1 × 106 cells, using normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCN), B (REH, ALLP0 and NALM-6)- and T (CEMC7 and MOLT4) – ALL cell lines along with patients from other haematological disorders at 4°C, in dark for 1 hour. Cells were analysed using FACSCalibur; Becton Dickinson, San Jose, CA. Accordingly, the dose of Achatinin-H (0.04 μg/10 μl) was selected and used for all subsequent experiments. This dose has been ensured from time to time to avoid any discrepancy in the MRD detection.
b. Standardization of dose of Streptavidin-PerCP
Normal and patient PBMC (1 × 106 cells) were separately incubated with B-CD19 and PE-CD19 at 4°C, in dark for 1 hour. Tubes containing B-CD19 were monitored using different doses of Streptavidin-PerCP (0.05 – 0.2 μg/10 μl) and the dose (0.05 μg/10 μl) giving similar binding with respect to PE-CD19 was selected for MRD assay. Isotype matched negative control was used for every assay.
c. Assessment of expression of OAcSGP along with other lineage-specific markers
Based on the anomalous differential expression of the certain cell surface proteins, the patients were classified broadly into three groups, OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ for B-ALL and OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ for T-ALL. These differential expressions have been monitored to differentiate normal versus. diseased cells in a particular sample. Briefly, clinical samples were diluted in Alsevers solution in the ratio of 1:1, layered on an equal volume of Ficoll-Hypaque and centrifuged at 1000 rpm for 1 hour. The mononuclear cells (MNCs) were separated and washed twice in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.2) and suspended in RPMI-1640 supplemented with 2 mM glutamine, gentamycin and FCS (10%) for 1 hour in ice. MNCs (1 × 106/100 μl) were initially incubated with FITC-Achatinin-H followed by incubation with PE and B conjugated anti-CD mAbs in ice for 1 hour, in dark, combination of probes for a particular patient being OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ for B-ALL and OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ for T-ALL. The cells were washed in PBS and incubated with Streptavidin-PerCP. Finally they were washed thrice in PBS, fixed in paraformaldehyde (1%) and the binding was monitored in a flow cytometer (FACSCalibur, Becton Dickinson, San Jose, CA). Irrelevant mAbs of the same isotype as in the triplet combinations, conjugated with the same fluorochromes, were used as negative controls. Analysis and calculations were performed using CellQuestPro software (B.D. Biosciences). MNCs were gated for lymphocytes by staining with anti-CD45 mAb with > 98.0% positive cells. All blood samples were processed, fixed and acquired within 24 hours, from the time of collection maintaining all conditions rigidly during MRD assay.
d. Acquisition of samples
For MRD detection, at the time of acquisition, the rate of flow of the cells is kept below 300 events/sec (in RUN-LO mode) in FACSCalibur so that all the cells are properly analysed. Forward Scatter (FSC) and Side Scatter (SSC) are kept in linear scale at the time of acquisition. The cells in the region 400–600 of FSC are gated as the lymphoblasts (Region, R1) and 1,00,000 events in R1 are recorded.
e. Evaluation of minimum number of OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+, OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ cells as MRD from a mixed population
To estimate the minimal number of OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+, OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ cells in a heterogeneous population, lymphoblasts from diagnostic samples were admixed to MNCs of patients at various time-points of follow-up during chemotherapy in both PB and BM for lineage-unrelated leukaemia (e.g. B-ALL lymphoblasts mixed with T-ALL follow-up BM and vice-versa) in varying proportions (1:1, 1:10, 1:100, 1:1000 and 1:10000), keeping the total cell number constant (1 × 106) and processed for MRD assay. Similarly, the MRD assay was repeated by admixing cells from B – (REH) and T – (MOLT4) ALL cell lines separately with PBMCN to detect OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ population.
f. Statistical analysis
Statistical analysis was performed using the Graph-Pad Prism statistics software program (Graph-Pad Software Inc., CA). Results are expressed as Mean ± SD for individual set of experiments. The sensitivity and specificity of the assays were calculated as per the standard formulae.
Optimisation of Achatinin-H to evaluate the status of OAcSGP for MRD detection
Minimal expression of cell surface OAcSGP (5–10% of OAcSGP+ cells, mean fluorescence intensity, MFI, being ~10–50 au) on PBMCN was evidenced using FITC-Achatinin-H (0.04 μg/10 μl). With this dose of FITC-Achatinin-H, more than 90% cells from T- and B-ALL cell lines were positive for the presence of OAcSGP (MFI being ~100–700 au), establishing it as a vital disease-associated determinant. This dose of lectin gave a minimal binding with PBMC of other haematological disorders (5–10%).
Analysis of the data using CellQuestPro software
For the detection of MRD, the MNCs were gated as R1, based on the FSC and SSC as previously discussed in Methods section (Figure 1a). These MNCs in the R1 region are assessed for the binding of PE-CD10/PE-CD34/PE-CD7, as the case may be, in a dot-plot comprising PE versus SSC. The region positive for the PE probe is gated as R2 (Figure 1b). The cells in the R2 region are observed in a third dot-plot with FITC-Achatinin-H vs. PerCP-CD19/CD3 as the case may be. The upper right quadrant, which is positive for both FITC and PerCP, is gated as R3 (Figure 1c). Thus this R3 region is positive for all the three markers (i.e., OAcSGP plus two other lineage-specific markers, either for B- or T-lineage ALL), recognizing the lymphoblast population expressing all the three markers viz. OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+. The R3 gating is kept fixed for each patient, whose PB and BM are monitored 18 and 11 times respectively, as per protocol MCP841 and the number of cells in this region is used as the percent of MRD in that patient throughout the treatment phase.
Figure 1. Defining the regions R1, R2 and R3 in flow-cytometric dot plots for MRD detection. a) Forward Scatter (FSC) vs. Side Scatter (SSC) in linear mode, showing the region gated for lymphoblasts (400–600), designated as R1. b) Lymphoblasts (R1) plotted with PE-(CD10/CD34 for B-ALL and CD7 for T-ALL) vs. SSC. The R2 gate indicates lymphoblasts positive for the PE tagged fluorophore. c) Cells in the R2 region are represented in this plot for detecting cells, which are positive for FITC-Achatinin-H (OAcSGP+) and PerCP-CD19/CD3 for B/T ALL using a multiple gate (R1+R2). Thus the R3 region gates lymphoblasts positive for all the three cell surface markers ensuring that every cell in this region is OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+or OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ and is defined as the region positive for MRD i.e., cells in this region are the residual blasts.
Variable expression of OAcSGP with other lineage-specific markers on MNCs at diagnosis and during clinical remission (MRD)
a. Status in PB
At the onset of ALL, irrespective of lineage, 40–90% of the PBMC comprised of the cancerous blasts as per morphological estimation. Percentage of morphological blasts as estimated by clinicians correlated well with the percentage of OAcSGP+ cells being about 50–90%. When assessed using FACS, the percentage of cells positive for OAcSGP along with two known CD markers viz. OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+ (n = 52), OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ (n = 23) and OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ (n = 14), are 63.97 ± 9.37, 54.82 ± 6.87 and 61.23 ± 6.25 respectively.
After one week of chemotherapy, there is a sharp decrease in the percentage of cells expressing all three markers viz. OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+ (n = 49) or OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ (n = 18) or OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ (n = 11) being 0.01 ± 0.005, 0.026 ± 0.018 and 0.01 ± 0.005 respectively and is considered as MRD. In this two-year tenure of treatment, out of the total 109 patients followed up for the MRD study only 81.65% (n = 89) remained in clinical remission (CR) with no detectable morphological blasts. The average MRD of these patients in PB, during this period, using three-colour flow-cytometric templates are 0.023 ± 0.01, 0.036 ± 0.015 and 0.03 ± 0.015% for OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+ (n = 758), OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ (n = 337) and OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ (n = 166) template respectively (Table 1).
Table 1. Status of *lymphoblasts (MRD) in ALL patients at various stages of treatment under MCP841 protocol during a two-year longitudinal follow-up study.
b. Status in BM
With an aim to correlate the presence of diseased cells (MRD), in PB with that of the BM in these 89 patients, BM from each patient was monitored at different time-points during chemotherapy, as per the MCP841 protocol. At diagnosis, the percent of OAcSGP+ cells positive for two lineage-specific CD markers viz. OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+(n = 52), OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ (n = 23) and OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ (n = 14) are 77.61 ± 6.96, 61.84 ± 9.13 and 73.89 ± 7.89 respectively.
As per the protocol, BM received after the initial five doses of chemotherapy, showed an abrupt reduction in the percentage of the above mentioned cell population. The MRD in BM after five weeks of treatment i.e., at the end of induction 1 is 0.066 ± 0.028, 0.05 ± 0.028 and 0.03 ± 0.01 percent for the templates OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+ (n = 41), OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ (n = 17) and OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ (n = 12) respectively while the PB collected at the same time had a MRD of 0.026 ± 0.016, 0.04 ± 0.027 and 0.04 ± 0.01 respectively. During longitudinal follow-up, average MRD in BM of these 89 patients, for templates OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+ (n = 443), OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ (n = 197) and OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ (n = 96) were 0.05 ± 0.019, 0.055 ± 0.01 and 0.03 ± 0.01 in BM as compared to PB being 0.023 ± 0.01, 0.036 ± 0.015 and 0.03 ± 0.015 respectively. These patients were in CR (Table 1). A representative profile of MRD (OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ cells, in R3 gating) in patients from B- and T-lineage ALL has been shown in Figure 2 where the patients at the end of induction 1 (Figure 2b, e, h and 2k) and in CR (Figure 2c, f, i and 2l) range around 0.01–0.03% irrespective of PB and BM. For comparison the presence of OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ cells are shown in diagnostic PB (Figure 2a, g) and BM (Figure 2d, j) from the same patients.
Figure 2. Detection of MRD as indicated in the R3 region. A representative profile of a B-ALL patient presenting the status of triple positive cells detected in R3 region viz. OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ at the diagnosis is shown in PB (a) and BM (d). After the completion of 5 weeks of treatment, the BM sample first received (as per protocol) is compared with PB. The MRD (%) of these samples is shown in PB (b) and BM (e) and MRD during CR is shown in PB (c) and BM (f). Similarly, the representative profile of a T-ALL patient shows the percentage of OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ cells at diagnosis in PB (g) and BM (j) respectively. MRD (%) in PB and BM is shown in (h, k) after 5 weeks of treatment and (i, l) during CR. PB and BM from B-ALL patient and T-ALL patient are abbreviated as PBB-ALL, BMB-ALL, PBT-ALL and BMT-ALL respectively.
Absence of OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ cells in normal donors and in patients of other haematological malignancies
In parallel, the MRD assay was similarly performed with samples from normal donors and patients with other haematological malignancies. The R3 region (Figure 1c), defining the MRD in children with ALL, had no visible cell population in the normal children and in those with other haematological malignancies, henceforth used as controls. Moreover MRD could not be detected using CellQuestPro software thereby confirming that the templates OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ are specific for childhood leukaemia. This has been illustrated in Figure 3 where absence of MRD has been shown in a representative normal donor and an AML patient. This phenomenon is irrespective of PB and BM.
Figure 3. Status of regions R2 and R3 in a representative normal donor and an AML patient. The R1 region has not been shown in this Figure. The R2 region is devoid of any cells for PBN, (a), BMN (c), PBAML (e) and BMAML (g). Consequently, the R3 region has no cells i.e., no detectable MRD in normal and the AML cases as shown for PBN (b), BMN (d), PBAML (f) and BMAML (h). PBN, BMN, PBAML and BMAML represent PB and BM from normal donor and an AML patient respectively.
Prognostic value of MRD detection using OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ template
a. Failure of early clearance of OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ lymphoblasts is a possible indicator for bad prognosis
In this study population, out of the 109 patients, 20 showed anomalous MRD at different time points of treatment under MCP841 protocol. Among these 20 patients, a group of 9 patients (8.26% of n = 109) illustrated an abnormal trend of failure of early clearance of the lymphoblasts after the initial few doses of chemotherapy both in PB and BM (Figure 4, 5). These patients could be identified within the first induction phase of treatment (0–5 weeks of treatment) and showed a greater chance of relapse as was evidenced from the clinical relapse encountered in 6 patients i.e. 5.5% of the patients (n = 109). Incidentally these relapses were detected within the two-year treatment phase, during the maintenance therapy.
Figure 4. Failure of early clearance of lymphoblasts, during induction 1 of treatment, in R3 region is a poor prognosis increasing the possibility of relapse. The status of OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+, at diagnosis, in PBB-ALL (a) and BMB-ALL (d) of a representative profile of a patient is shown. After the fifth week of chemotherapy, the MRD of this patient in PB is high (b) as compared to that of another B-ALL patient (h) who is in CR. Similarly the high MRD of this patient in BM (after 5 weeks of treatment) is shown (e). The MRD in PB and BM at the time of relapse is shown in (c) and (f) respectively while that of a patient having CR throughout the treatment is shown in (i).
Figure 5. MRD in children susceptible to relapse, as predicted by the soaring MRD during induction 1 of the two-year treatment phase under MCP841 protocol. MRD of nine patients is shown from the first week of treatment till the end of two years unless otherwise expired. The data at diagnosis (0 week of treatment) has been given for comparison. Six patients relapsed of whom four attained CR (black circle) while two died post relapse (white rhombus). The remaining three patients inspite of initial high MRD remained in CR throughout (black triangle). a. Represents the MRD in PB. b. Represents the MRD in BM.
The representative profile of PB and BM from one such B-ALL patient has been elaborated in Figure 4. After the 5 weeks of treatment (end of induction 1), clearance of OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+ cells from PB of this patient (Patient 1) was insufficient as reflected by a 30 fold higher MRD (Figure 4b) in contrast to that of a representative patient in CR (Figure 4h). Although MRD (0.04 ± 0.01) of this child was minimal in between, there was an abnormal hike in the MRD being 10.0% in PB on the 48th week corroborated by clinical relapse (Figure 4c). As per protocol, when BM of this child was received at the end of induction 1, MRD was three fold higher (Figure 4e) in contrast to patients in CR (Figure 2f), MRD being 0.1 vs. 0.03 (p value < 0.0001). Consequently, on the 48th week of treatment, MRD in the BM of this child was very high (20%, Figure 4f) confirming clinical relapse. The lymphoblasts of these patients in R3 gating, at diagnosis, are shown for comparison in Figure 4a and 4d for PB and BM of Patient 1 and Figure 4g for PB of Patient 2.
The status of MRD in these 9 patients is elaborately shown in PB (Figure 5a) and BM (Figure 5b) at different weeks of treatment. All of them had high MRD in PB (n = 156) during induction 1 as is evident from Figure 5a, ranging between 0.1–1%. The MRD in BM (n = 93) (Figure 5b) simultaneously was also high at the end of induction 1 (6th week of treatment), when according to MCP841 protocol BM aspirate was taken for the second time, the first time being at diagnosis. These patients relapsed at some point during maintenance therapy and accordingly may be designated as high-risk patients. Out of six, two of them died after relapse, while the remaining four attained CR.
b. Assessment of OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ lymphoblasts capable of detecting relapse few weeks prior to clinical relapse
The remaining 11 patients (10.09% of n = 109 patients) susceptible for relapse had MRD within the normal range initially which became higher just prior to clinical relapse (Figure 6). MRD for these children increased to more than 0.1% in PB (Figure 6a) and 0.7% in BM (Figure 6b), irrespective of B or T-lineage ALL. In accordance with the previous group (Figure 5) having susceptibility of relapse predicted by less clearance of lymphoblasts, this group also had relapse mainly during the maintenance therapy. Out of 11 patients (PB = 161 samples; BM = 81 samples), relapse could however be detected only in 10 patients (9.17%). Representative profiles of MRD of five patients in PB (Figure 6a) and in BM (Figure 6b) have been revealed. These children, prior to maintenance had a low detectable level of MRD being 0.01–0.06% in PB and 0.04–0.08% in BM. However, on or after 20 weeks of treatment each of these patients had a higher MRD in both PB and BM followed by a clinical relapse at some point during maintenance. This detection could be done at least one month before the actual clinical relapse.
Figure 6. MRD in children who relapsed after a few weeks of high MRD in PB and BM during the two-year treatment phase under MCP841 protocol. MRD of five representative patients are shown (black circle) from first week of treatment. The data at diagnosis has been given for comparison. a. Represents the MRD in PB. b. Represents the MRD in BM.
Detection of minimum number of OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ cells in a heterogeneous population to attest the sensitivity of MRD assay
Initially to simulate the in vivo scenario, MRD was assessed using leukemic blasts from diagnostic samples admixed to PB or BM samples, as the case may be, from various time-points of follow-up during chemotherapy for lineage-unrelated leukaemia (Figure 7a). One OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+, OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ cell could be detected in a total population of 10,000 lymphocytes. The estimate of leukemic cell content in each mixture was extremely accurate (r2 = 0.96). Similarly, the assay was repeated using a heterogeneous cell population of PBMCN with ALL cell lines. In this mixed population, similar detection of MRD was possible for OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ population (r2 = 0.99, Figure 7b).
Figure 7. Quantification of leukemic blasts by flow cytometry using admix assay. a. Dilutions of diagnostic samples admixed to PB or BM samples, from various time-points of follow-up during chemotherapy for lineage-unrelated leukaemia (e.g. B-lineage blasts into T-ALL follow-up BM and vice-versa) and analysed for MRD in R3 region using the same template as described in Materials and Methods. Correlation of the data was examined by regression analysis; line of identity is shown by (-). Diagnostic PB from B-ALL mixed with T-ALL follow-up (52 weeks of treatment, black rhombus); diagnostic BM from B-ALL mixed with T-ALL follow-up (52 weeks of treatment, black triangle); diagnostic BM from T-ALL mixed with B-ALL follow-up (90 weeks of treatment, O); diagnostic BM from T-ALL mixed with B-ALL follow-up (104 weeks of treatment, black square) b. Dilutions of the REH (B-ALL, white triangle) and MOLT-4 (T-ALL, white rhombus) cell lines were made with normal PBMC and analysed as above.
Immunophenotype, ploidy, chromosomal abnormalities, gene rearrangements and clinical parameters are extensively used for treatment stratification, but none of these prognostic factors is totally accurate. Flow cytometry, however, has the potential for accurate quantification of MRD [30-37]. Although several strategies have been adopted for treatment in childhood cancer , interest in the use of biomarkers to evaluate the clinical status of the patient and the future risk or relapse still remains a challenge. Assessment of the O-acetylated sialoglycan profile is a relatively unexplored domain in leukaemia sialobiology where the amplified expression of OAcSGP has been established as a vital ALL-associated determinant [3,15,19,20,25].
According to existing literature, the rate of post-chemotherapy (after two-years of therapy under MCP841 protocol) relapse rate is very high in India . About 70% of all relapses occur within four years from the start of therapy. Due to the socio-economic scenario in India, a large number of children, especially from weaker section of society, expire because of the adverse effect of the lethal doses of chemotherapy or due to the inability to bear the expenses of treatment. Our aim was to design a MRD template that would successfully unveil the disease status of these patients, both in PB and BM during the treatment regimen and correlate with the clinical symptom in a two-year longitudinal follow-up study by flow cytometry. The over expression of OAcSGP on lymphoblasts, irrespective of their lineage, at onset of the disease, makes it a universal marker for paediatric ALL . Therefore, we have explored its differential expression along with other lineage-specific antigens and have established the competence of the triple colour over single and double colour template for monitoring MRD in these children.
The current investigation demonstrates the potential of the designed templates OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ for successful diagnosis and evaluation of the disease status during the two-year chemotherapy, suggesting its application in MRD detection and prediction of impending relapse in ALL both in PB and BM. The level of MRD detection is 0.01% i.e., 1 cancerous cell in 104 lymphocytes can be detected using the above mentioned templates Failure in early clearance of these lymphoblasts during the initial few weeks of treatment (till the end of induction 1) showed high risk of relapse within the two-year treatment phase. The relapse can be forecasted few weeks prior to clinical relapse by periodic monitoring of these patients, even in PB. The MRD detection in BM correlated well with PB in both B- and T-ALL.
Augmented expression of OAcSGP at diagnosis and its subsequent decrease during the treatment phase, irrespective of the lineage, triggered us to use it as an indicator for MRD detection in childhood ALL. Using OAcSGP as the only marker to monitor MRD could not improve the sensitivity of detection below 5% as corroborated by our earlier observation . Moreover, 5–10% of MNCs from normal donor also expressed OAcSGP on their surface, though with minimum the antigen density (MFI = 10–50 au). Therefore, an ALL-specific template was required for successful MRD detection. Two-colour flow-cytometric study enabled the sensitivity to increase only up to 0.1% . This phenomenon has also been highlighted in Table 2, where in spite of a 100% specificity, indicating zero cross-reactivity, the single or dual marker method of MRD detection could not be used. This paved the path for the three-colour flow-cytometric study for further increasing the sensitivity of MRD detection using Achatinin-H along with two other lineage-specific markers for B/T-ALL where detection level was 0.01%.
Table 2. Sensitivity and specificity of the templates used for the detection of MRD in children with ALL
For the MRD detection, emphasis has been given on the inclusion of only those CD markers whose expressions were upregulated at the onset of the disease. Therefore, in addition to OAcSGP, we have taken into consideration two other lineage-specific markers, templates being OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+, OAcSGP+CD34+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+, the former two for the MRD detection in B-ALL and the latter for T-ALL. CD34 was included in the template only for those patients who had a low percentage (5–8%) of CD10+ cells at diagnosis. The detection level of MRD thus improved to 0.01% (Figure 2, Table 1). This observation was also demonstrated by the admixed experiment (Figure 7a, b) in which we could unequivocally detect the leukaemia-derived signals in dilutions containing at least two leukemic cells in 104 normal cells (r2 = 0.99), thereby suggesting the proficiency of the templates.
The threshold of percent positive cells was used for MRD detection. Cells positive for all the three antigens viz., OAcSGP+CD10+CD19+ or OAcSGP+CD34+CD19 or OAcSGP+CD7+CD3+ (as defined by the R3 gating) were considered to be the MRD present in the patient. The MRD in normal donor and in patients with other haematological diseases was absent (Figure 3) and therefore this was used as negative control for all subsequent MRD analysis of children with ALL. Patients at diagnosis were tested for the presence of the same phenotype of cells for comparison as positive control. Using these standards for evaluation, the ALL patients in CR have an average MRD of 0.03 ± 0.01% (PB) and 0.05 ± 0.015% (BM), irrespective of their lineage, suggesting superior prognosis as substantiated by clinical data (Table 1). Out of the total 109 patients studied during this two-year longitudinal follow-up study, 81.65% were in CR throughout the chemotherapeutic regimen. As because MRD detection using these templates could be done in no other haematological malignancy except ALL, therefore, the aforesaid templates can be considered to be ALL-specific.
Clinical relapse was encountered in 16 patients during the maintenance phase of treatment. Two groups of patients highly susceptible to relapse could be identified from this study population. The first cluster of such high-risk patients had high MRD during induction 1, in both PB and BM, with a consequent clinical relapse during 48–76th week of treatment i.e., between second and fourth maintenance. Therefore, presence of MRD beyond the average range during induction 1 has great prognostic significance predicting relapse during maintenance therapy. 8.26% patients of the total patient population showed this trend; however, only 5.5% relapsed as predicted. Four of these patients attained CR during 5th and 6th maintenance while two of them died (Figure 5). The fact that three patients were in CR in spite of their high MRD within the first five weeks of treatment was probably due to their better response to chemotherapy compared to their counterparts coming across relapse. As the patients are monitored less frequently during maintenance therapy, once in three months, the majority of the relapses during this period can be accounted for. The other group of patients at risk of relapse exhibited high MRD few weeks prior to clinical relapse (Figure 6). They had average MRD during the first 20 weeks of treatment, which increased after this period terminating in a clinical relapse. In this group of patients, the trend was seen in 10.09% out of which 9.17% relapsed. 8 of these patients went into CR while two of them died post relapse. Therefore, close monitoring of children during the treatment will help in modifying the intensification of the treatment. This observation has been supported by earlier information on MRD, in which monitoring patients during the first three months of treatment is able to distinguish patients with good prognosis from those with poor prognosis .
In general, as the normal counterparts of T-lineage ALL cells are immature T cells, which are confined to the thymus, detection of MRD simply consists of the identification of immature T cells outside the thymus, i.e. in the BM or in the PB. In contrast, the normal counterparts of B-ALL reside in BM, referred to as 'haematogones'. They are actively proliferating after chemotherapy or transplantation in BM, and can also be found in low proportions in PB . Therefore the strategy for MRD detection in B-ALL is less straightforward than T-ALL. The use of PB for the detection of MRD is debatable because subtle leukaemia-associated deregulation of gene expression extends to many other molecules normally expressed during B-cell differentiation [33,34]. However two studies [35,36] have shown that paired MRD values in BM and PB are highly concordant in T-ALL. Conversely, large differences frequently occur in B-ALL, where levels are higher in BM than that of PB. Interestingly, we could detect MRD in both PB and BM not only in CR but also for predicting impending relapses. In the category of patients, failing to clear lymphoblasts during the first induction of chemotherapy, MRD in PB was very high between 1–6 weeks, corroborated by higher MRD in BM on 6th week (Figure 5). Accordingly at the time of relapse, very high MRD could be detected in PB as well as BM. Similarly in the second high-risk group of patients, elevation in MRD few weeks prior to relapse occurred irrespective of PB and BM (Figure 6). In all the aforesaid comparisons although the MRD in PB is significantly less than that in BM (p value < 0.0001), the interesting piece of information that can be retrieved is that MRD in BM is being reflected in PB. As comparable MRD can be detected even in PB, the strenuous process of BM aspiration may be evaded.
In this investigation, each patient has been monitored 29 times (PB-18 times and BM-11 times) throughout the two-year tenure of treatment under MCP841. As the samples were obtained as per the MCP841 protocol, for clinical investigation, we have utilized the opportunity to use them for the MRD assay for standardization of our template. Although monitoring a patient so frequently is difficult and expensive for a third world country like India, such an elaborate monitoring may not be needed. Minute quantity of lectin (0.04 μg/μl per test) used for the assay, being 1.2 μg for a patient in two years offers a cheaper source of diagnostic approach.
The templates used in this investigation enable MRD detection in both PB and BM of every B-and T-ALL patient. Patients in CR have MRD between 0.02–0.04% in PB and 0.04–0.06% in BM irrespective of B/T-ALL. Although the difference between the MRD in PB and BM is significant (p value < 0.0001, Table 1), the clinical status of the patients can be revealed even from PB. In the study population comprising 130 children with ALL at diagnosis, 21 patients could not be monitored after diagnosis, as they were not available. Among the remaining 109 children, 81.65% attained and remained in CR throughout the two-year chemotherapeutic regimen while 18.34% showed abnormal pattern in MRD. 8.26% of these patients had high MRD during induction 1 with subsequent relapse in 5.5% patients during maintenance. Among the relapsed patients, 1.83% died while the remaining attained CR.10.09% of the patients showed elevated MRD few weeks before relapse. While one of them escaped relapse, 7.34% experienced so, accomplishing CR and 1.83% dying post relapse (Figure 8).
Figure 8. Details of the study population in childhren with ALL, beginning with diagnosis and ending with the completion of MCP841 protocol. n = Number of patients; percentage of patients among the total population is indicated in parentheses.
It is interesting to note that 89 patients in spite of being in CR during the two-year chemotherapy, showed an observable MRD and therefore may not be declared as normal. Therefore, we recommend MRD study beyond two-year follow-up to monitor the lowering of MRD in these children, thereby ensuring their disease free survival.
9-O-acetylated sialoglycoproteins/Neu5,9Ac2-GPs (OAcSGP); Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL); Biotin conjugated (B); Bone Marrow (BM); Bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM); Clinical remission (CR); Flourescein isothiocyanate (FITC); Forward Scatter (FSC); Minimal residual disease (MRD); Monoclonal antibodies (mAb); Mononuclear cells (MNCs); Normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCN); Peripheral Blood (PB); Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC); Phycoerythrin (PE); Side Scatter (SSC).
The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.
All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Suchandra Chowdhury carried out the standardization of the assays, processing of all the samples throughout the study, preparation of tables, graphs and draft of the Manuscript. Dr. Suman Bandyopadhyay performed the initial standardization of templates. Chandan Mandal maintained a record of all the clinical samples and also helped in processing samples. Dr. Sarmila Chandra provided the clinical samples and the history of the patients. Dr. Chitra Mandal, being the main project investigator participated in the supervision of the entire work, preparation of manuscript and gave final approval of the version to be published.
This work received financial support from the Department of Science and Technology (DST) and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR, CM002), Govt. of India, New Delhi. Suchandra Chowdhury, Chandan Mandal and Suman Bandyopadhyay are Senior Research Fellows of University Grant Commission and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) respectively. The authors thank Ms K. Mukherjee for her initial help during standardization and Mr. Asish Mullick for his excellent technical assistance.
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