Table 2

Case-control studies of smokeless tobacco and pancreatic cancer

Study Details

Third National Cancer Survey Study

Louisiana Study

Washington State Study

Quebec Study



Source

Williams et al [16]

Falk et al [20]

Farrow et al[12]

Ghadirian et al [21]


Country

USAa

USA

USA

Canada


Timing

1969–1971

1979–1983

1982–1986

1984–1988


Sex

Malesb

Males and females

Malesc

Males and females


Cases

Incident, pancreatic cancer

Incident, pancreatic cancer

Incident, pancreatic cancer

Diagnosed, pancreatic, bile duct or gall bladder cancer


Controls

Incident, cancers not associated with smoking

Hospital, without diet-altering chronic disease

Population, random-digit dialling

Population, random-digit dialling


Matching

None

Age, sex, race

Age, area

Age, sex, area


Surrogate respondents

None

> 50% (cases), 13% (controls)

100% (cases), 100% (controls)

75% (cases), 17% (controls)


Casesd

113e

363

168

179


Controlsd

2074e

1234

195

239


Data on ST usef

Chewing or snuff

Chewing, snuff

Chewing

Chewing


Adjustment factorsg

Age, race, smoking

Unstated

Race, education

Age, sex, smoking, education, proxy response



Nine Hospital Study

Fifteen County Study

Texas Study



Source

Muscat et al [13]

Alguacil and Silverman [14]

Hassan et al [15]


Country

USAh

USAi

USA


Timing

1985–1993

1986–1989

2000–2006


Sex

Malesb

Males and females

Males and females


Cases

Incident, pancreatic

cancer

Incident, exocrine pancreatic cancer

Incident, pancreatic adenocarcinoma


Controls

Hospital, diseases not associated with smoking

Population, random-digit diallingj

Hospital visitors, healthy, no cancer history


Matching

Age, sex, race, hospital, year of diagnosis

Age, sex, race

Age, sex, race


Surrogate respondents

None

None

None


Casesd

290e

154

808


Controlsd

572e

844

808


Data on ST usef

Chewing, snuff

Chewing or snuff

Chewing, snuff


Adjustment factorsg

None

Age, sex, race, site, cigar smoking

Age, sex, race, smoking, diabetes, alcohol, education, area, marital status


a Nationwide

b Females were also studied, but results were only available for males

c Only married men were included

d Numbers used in specific analyses may be less than this

e Numbers are of males

f "Chewing or snuff" implies that results were only available for combined ST use; "chewing, snuff" implies they were separately available

g Adjustment factors used in analysis

h Conducted in four hospitals in New York, two in Philadelphia, and one each in Chicago, and Detroit

i Conducted in two counties in Atlanta, three in Detroit and ten in the state of New Jersey

j Controls aged 65–79 were drawn from Medicare and Medicaid service rosters

Sponsiello-Wang et al. BMC Cancer 2008 8:356   doi:10.1186/1471-2407-8-356

Open Data