TRAIL/zVAD/CHX-induced programmed necrosis synergizes with chemotherapy in the elimination of tumor cells. (a) Cells were treated with zVAD/CHX as in Figure 1a with additional application of cisplatin (Cis, 50 μM), etoposide (Eto, 20 μg/ml), trichostatin A (Tri, 100 ng/ml), 5-fluorouracil (Flu, 50 μg/ml), irinotecan (Iri, 1 μM), doxorubicin (Dox, 5 μg/ml), camptothecin (Cam, 10 μM), or paclitaxel (Pac, 1 μM). After 24 h of incubation, viability was measured with the XTT detection kit (for non-adherent CCRF-CEM cells) or by crystal violet staining (for all other cell lines) and is shown relative to zVAD/CHX-treated cells. Treatment with zVAD/CHX (control) served as reference for the calculation of P values. (b) In the same experiment, cells were additionally treated with TRAIL/zVAD/CHX as in Figure 1a with addition of chemotherapeutics as in (a). Here, viability is shown relative to cells treated with zVAD/CHX in combination with the respective chemotherapeutic agent, which also served as reference for the calculation of P values. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.
Voigt et al. BMC Cancer 2014 14:74 doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-74