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Open Access Research article

Family history of cancer and gastroesophageal disorders and risk of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas: a case–control study

Xuejuan Jiang1, Chiu-Chen Tseng2, Leslie Bernstein3 and Anna H Wu4*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

2 Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA

3 Department of Population Sciences, Beckman Research Institute and City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, CA, USA

4 University of Southern California/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90089-9175, USA

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BMC Cancer 2014, 14:60  doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-60

Published: 4 February 2014

Abstract

Background

There is a paucity of data on familial risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma, gastric cardia adenocarcinoma and distal gastric adenocarcinoma from population-based studies.

Methods

A population-based case–control study of newly diagnosed gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma was conducted in Los Angeles County. This analysis included data of case-patients whom we were able to interview directly (147 patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma, 182 with gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, and 285 with distal gastric adenocarcinoma) and 1,309 control participants. Multivariate polytomous logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the three cancer types.

Results

Risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma was positively associated with a family history of prostate cancer (OR = 2.84; 95% CI = 1.50-5.36) and a family history of hiatal hernia (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.12-3.71). Risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma was strongly associated with a family history of esophageal cancer (OR = 5.18; 95% CI = 1.23-21.79) and a family history of hiatal hernia (OR = 2.31; 95% CI = 1.37-3.91). Risk of distal gastric adenocarcinoma was positively associated with a family history of gastric cancer (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.18-3.91), particularly early-onset (before age 50) gastric cancer (OR = 2.82; 95% CI = 1.11-7.15).

Conclusions

This study provides evidence that family history of hiatal hernia is a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma and that cancer in specific sites is associated with risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma, gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, and distal gastric adenocarcinoma. It is important to determine the extent to which shared environmental and genetic factors explain these familial associations.

Keywords:
Hiatal hernia; Family history; Esophageal adenocarcinoma, Gastric cardia; Distal gastric cancer