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Open Access Research article

HPV seropositivity joints with susceptibility loci identified in GWASs at apoptosis associated genes to increase the risk of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC)

Ju Yang1, Huanlei Wu1, Sheng Wei3, Huihua Xiong1, Xiangning Fu2, Zhaozhen Qi1, Qian Jiang1, Wen Li1, Guangyuan Hu1, Xianglin Yuan1* and Zhongxing Liao4

Author Affiliations

1 Departments of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

2 Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

3 Department of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

4 Department of Radiation Oncology, Unit 97, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, Texas 77030, USA

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BMC Cancer 2014, 14:501  doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-501

Published: 9 July 2014

Abstract

Background

We previously showed that human papillomavirus (HPV) serostatus was not an independent risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma(ESCC) in nonsmokers and nondrinkers; however, HPV increased the risk in smokers.

Methods

Here we investigated possible interactions between HPV16 serostatus and three susceptibility loci identified in GWASs at apoptosis associated genes with regard to risk of ESCC in a case–control study of 313 patients with ESCC and 314 healthy controls. The loci (CHK2 rs738722, C12orf51 rs2074356, and PLCE1 rs2274223) were genotyped, and the presence or absence of HPV16 in serum was measured by ELISA. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate possible interactions of HPV16 serostatus and the three loci on the risk of ESCC.

Results

A significant interaction was found between HPV16 serology and rs2074356 (P = 0.005, odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–1.77) or rs2274223 (P < 0.001, OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.23–1.91), but not for rs738722. For rs2074356, risk of ESCC was increased substantially in smokers (P < 0.001, OR 8.25, 95% CI 3.84–17.71) and drinkers (OR4.04, P = 0.001, 95% CI 1.79–9.10) who carried risk alleles (TT or TC genotype) and were HPV16-seropositive. Similar results were observed for rs2274223 in smokers (P < 0.001, OR6.06, 95% CI 2.85–12.88) and drinkers (P < 0.001, OR 5.43, 95% CI 2.51–11.76), but not for rs738722.

Conclusion

Consistent with the previous study, loci at rs2074356 and rs2274223 could increase the risk of ESCC, furthermore, there were significant interactions between HPV sero-status and the susceptibility loci on the risk of ESCC. This effect could be modified obviously by smoking and drinking.

Keywords:
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Apoptosis; Genome-wide association study; HPV16; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Smoking; Drinking