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Open Access Research article

Upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 in colorectal cancer patients with increased circulation carbon monoxide levels, potentially affects chemotherapeutic sensitivity

Hongzhuan Yin12, Jun Fang234, Long Liao25, Hiroshi Maeda2 and Qi Su1*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of General Surgery, Sheng Jing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang City, Liaoning Province 110004, P. R. China

2 DDS Research Institute, Sojo University, Ikeda 4-22-1, Nishi-Ku, Kumamoto 860-0082, Japan

3 Laboratory of Microbiology & Oncology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sojo University, Kumamoto, Japan

4 School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, 81th Meishan Road, Hefei City, Anhui Province 230032, P. R. China

5 Department of Applied Microbial Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology & Life Science, Sojo University, Kumamoto, Japan

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BMC Cancer 2014, 14:436  doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-436

Published: 14 June 2014

Abstract

Background

Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and its major product carbon monoxide (CO) are known to be involved in the development and progression of many tumors. The present study was to elucidate the expression and function of HO-1 in colorectal cancer (CRC), specially focusing on the circulation CO levels in CRC patients and the possible roles of HO-1 in chemoresistance of colon cancer cells.

Methods

One hundred and eighteen patients received resection for colorectal cancer and polyps at China Medical University Sheng Jing Hospital, were collected in this study. HO-1 expression in CRC tissues was analyzed by immnuohistochemical staining; circulation CO levels as carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in CRC patients were analyzed by an ABL800 FLEX blood gas analyzer. HO-1 expression in murine colon cells C26 and human colon cancer cells HT29 and DLD1 under HO-1 inducer hemin and anticancer drug pirarubicin (THP) treatment was examined by RT-PCR, and the cell viability after each treatment was investigated by MTT assay. Data were analyzed by student’s t-test or one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni t-test or Fisher's exact test.

Results

HO-1 expression in tumor tissues of CRC (61.0%) was significantly higher than in normal colorectal tissues and polyps tissues (29.7%, P < 0.01); well-differentiated CRC seemed to express more HO-1 (81.5%) than moderately/poorly-differentiated cancers (59.5%, P < 0.05). However, the nuclear HO-1 expression is apparently higher in moderately/poorly differentiated CRC than well-differentiated CRC probably suggesting a new mechanism of function involved in HO-1 in cancer. In parallel with HO-1 expression, circulation CO levels in CRC patients also significantly accelerated. Moreover, HO-1 expression/induction also related to the chemosensitivity of colon cells; HO inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin significantly increased cytotoxicities of THP (i.e., 2.6 – 5.3 folds compared to cells without zinc protoporphyrin treatment).

Conclusions

These findings strongly suggested HO-1/COHb is a useful diagnostic and prognostic indicator for CRC, and inhibition of HO-1 may be a option to enhance the chemotherapeutic effects of conventional anticancer drugs toward CRC.

Keywords:
Heme oxygenase-1; Carbon monoxide; Colorectal cancer; Carboxyhemoglobin; Chemosensitivity