A lactate shuttle system between tumour and stromal cells is associated with poor prognosis in prostate cancer
1 Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal
2 ICVS/3B’s - PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães, Portugal
3 Department of Pathology, Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Braga, Portugal
4 MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK
5 Uro-oncology Research Group, Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
6 Department of Pathology and Molecular Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar (ICBAS), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
7 School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
BMC Cancer 2014, 14:352 doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-352Published: 21 May 2014
In a malignant tumour, cancer cells are embedded in stromal cells, namely cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). These CAFs are now accepted as important players in cancer dynamics, being involved in tumour growth and progression. Although there are various reports on the interaction between tumour and stromal cells, the clinico-pathological significance of this cross-talk is still largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to characterise the expression of key metabolic proteins involved in glucose transport, pyruvate/lactate shuttle system, glycolytic metabolism and fatty acid oxidation in CAFs and tumour cells in different stages of malignant transformation. We further aimed to contextualise the clinico-pathological significance of these protein expression profiles with reference to known prognostic indicators, including biochemical recurrence in pT stage.
Prostate tissues were obtained from 480 patients with a median age of 64 years following radical prostatectomy with no previous hormonal therapy. Tissues were analysed for the expression of several key metabolism-related proteins in glands and surrounding fibroblasts by immunohistochemistry. Reliable markers of prognosis such as pT stage and biochemical recurrence were assessed for each case.
We observed that prostate cancer cells did not rely mainly on glycolytic metabolism, while there was a high expression of MCT4 and CAIX - in CAFs. This corroborates the hypothesis of the “Reverse Warburg effect” in prostate cancer, in which fibroblasts are under oxidative stress and express CAIX, an established hypoxia marker. We found that alterations in the expression of metabolism-related proteins were already evident in the early stages of malignant transformation, suggesting the continuing alteration of CAFs from an early stage. Additionally, and for the first time, we show that cases showing high MCT4 expression in CAFs with concomitant strong MCT1 expression in prostate cancer (PCa) cells are associated with poor clinical outcome, namely pT3 stage of the tumour.
In summary, this work demonstrates for the first time the clinico-pathological significance of the lactate shuttle in prostate cancer. It also suggests that other alterations in CAFs may be useful prognostic factors, and further supports the use of MCT1/MCT4 as targets for PCa therapy.