Table 5

Characteristics of case–control studies evaluating sugar consumption and ovarian cancer risk
Reference Location Cases/controls (n) Dietary assessment Time frame of dietary assessment Sugar variables Covariates Effect modifiers Results
Case–control studies: population-based
Kuper et al, 2000 [11] MA, NH (United States) 549/516 FFQ plus open ended section for unlisted foods 1 year prior to index date Caffeinated cola Age, study center Menopausal status, tumor histologic type + association: highest level of consumption of caffeinated cola No evidence of effect modification
McCann et al., 2003 [8] NY (United States) 124/696 Interviewer-administered diet questionnaire (172 items) 12 month period 2yr before interview Snacks age, education, total months menstruating, difficulty becoming pregnant, OC use, menopausal status, energy intake None No association: Snacks
Pan et al., 2004 [9] Canada 442/2,135 FFQ (69 items) 2 years prior to index date Baked desserts age, province of residence, education, alcohol consumption, pack-years smoked, BMI, total kcal, physical activity, # of live births, menstruation years, menopause status None No association: baked desserts
Kolahdooz et al, 2009 [6] Australia 717/806 FFQ (123 items) 1 year prior to index date “Meat and fat”1 category: High-energy drinks and sweetened food and sugar age, age squared, OC use, parity, education, energy intake Tumor stage No association: high-energy drinks and sweetened food and sugar did not explain the relationship between “meat and fat” and ovarian cancer
Chandran et al., 2011 [17] NJ (United States) 205/390 FFQ (110 items) 6 months prior to index date SoFAAS: total calories from solid fat, alcoholic beverages, and added sugar Age, education, race, age at menarche, menopausal status, parity, OC use, HRT use, tubal ligation, BMI, energy intake, physical activity, smoking status, pack-years smoked None No association: SoFAAS
Nagle et al., 2011 [35] Australia 1,366/1,414 FFQ (136 items) 1 year or if diet changed in last 6-12 mo, their usual diet Total sugar age, OC use, education, parity, BMI, menopausal status, energy intake BMI, HRT use, menopausal status No association: total sugar + association: total sugars among overweight/obese women. No effect modification by HRT use and menopausal status
Case–control studies: hospital-based
Tzonou et al., 1993 [36] Greece 189/200 FFQ (110 items) 1 year prior to index date Sucrose Age, education, parity, age at first birth, menopausal status, energy intake None No association: sucrose
Bosetti et al., 2001 [5]2 Italy 1,031/2,411 FFQ (78 items, plus range of courses and dishes) 2 year prior to index date Desserts, Sugar age, study center, year of interview, education, parity, OC use, energy intake None + association: sugar, Borderline + association: desserts
Bidoli et al., 2002 [37]2 Italy 1,031/2,411 FFQ (78 items, plus range of courses and dishes) 2 year prior to index date Sugar age, study center, year of interview, education, parity, OC use, energy intake Parity, menopausal status, energy intake, age, education, OC use No association: sugar No evidence of effect modification
Salazar-Martinez et al, 2002 [10] Mexico 84/629 FFQ (116 items) 1 year prior to index date Sucrose, fructose, glucose, maltose, “bread and cereal”, “sweets and desserts”, “soda, coffee, and tea”, tortilla age, energy intake, # of live births, recent changes in weight, physical activity, diabetes None No association: sucrose, fructose, glucose, maltose, bread and cereal, sweets and desserts, soda, coffee and tea, tortilla

Abbreviations: BMI- body mass index, DHQ- diet history questionnaire, ERT- unopposed estrogen replacement therapy, FFQ- food frequency questionnaire, HRT- hormone replacement therapy, OC- oral contraceptives, WHR- waist-to-hip ratio, “+ association” - positive association, “- association”- negative association 1 “Meat and fat” category included processed and red meat, poultry, liver, high-energy drinks (Cola drinks, other soft drinks, and cordials) and sweetened foods (cake, tart or pie, pastry, pavlova (meringue dessert), cheesecake, sweet roll, bun, plain sweet biscuits, fancy biscuits (e.g. chocolate coated), chocolate, lollies (candies), jam, peanut butter, and sugar) 2 Bidoli (2002) and Bosetti (2001) were from the same study.

King et al.

King et al. BMC Cancer 2013 13:94   doi:10.1186/1471-2407-13-94

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