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Open Access Research article

Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a significant risk factor for bladder cancer in diabetic patients: a population-based cohort study using the National Health Insurance in Taiwan

Chin-Hsiao Tseng

Author affiliations

Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine of the National Health Research Institutes, Taipei, Taiwan

Citation and License

BMC Cancer 2013, 13:7  doi:10.1186/1471-2407-13-7

Published: 4 January 2013

Abstract

Background

Diabetic patients have a higher risk of bladder cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Theoretically, BPH patients may have an increased risk of bladder cancer because residual urine in the bladder surely increases the contact time between urinary excreted carcinogens and the urothelium. However, whether BPH increases bladder cancer risk in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been studied.

Methods

The reimbursement databases of all Taiwanese diabetic patients under oral anti-diabetic agents or insulin from 1996 to 2009 were retrieved from the National Health Insurance. An entry date was set at 1 January 2006 and a total of 547584 men with type 2 diabetes were followed up for bladder cancer incidence until the end of 2009. Incidences of bladder cancer for BPH by status and by duration were calculated and adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were estimated by Cox regression. The effects of diabetes duration and medications used for diabetic control in relation with bladder cancer risk were also evaluated by Cox regression in BPH men.

Results

The incidences were 258.77 and 69.34 per 100,000 person-years for patients with and without BPH, respectively, adjusted hazard ratio 1.794 (1.572, 2.047). For BPH patients, those who underwent surgical procedures for BPH had a higher incidence than those who did not (355.45 vs. 250.09 per 100,000 person-years), respective adjusted hazard ratios: 2.459 (1.946, 3.109) and 1.709 (1.492, 1.958). The significantly higher risk could be demonstrated for BPH of any duration: respective adjusted hazard ratios 1.750 (1.430, 1.605), 1.844 (1.543, 2.203), 2.011 (1.680, 2.406) and 1.605 (1.341, 1.921) for BPH <1, 1–3, 3–5 and ≥5 years versus patients without BPH. Sensitivity analyses for patients aged ≥60 years and after excluding BPH patients with surgical procedures or without surgical procedures, respectively, yielded similar results. In BPH men, diabetes duration was not significantly related with bladder cancer; but metformin was consistently associated with a significantly lower risk, with adjusted hazard ratio of 0.719 (0.590, 0.875) for all ages and 0.742 (0.604, 0.912) for age ≥60 years.

Conclusions

BPH is a significant risk factor for bladder cancer in men with type 2 diabetes. Metformin may protect against bladder cancer in BPH men.

Keywords:
Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Bladder cancer; Diabetes mellitus; Risk factor; Taiwan