Email updates

Keep up to date with the latest news and content from BMC Cancer and BioMed Central.

Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

The Glasgow Prognostic Score, an inflammation based prognostic score, predicts survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

Akiyoshi Kinoshita1*, Hiroshi Onoda1, Nami Imai1, Akira Iwaku1, Mutumi Oishi1, Ken Tanaka1, Nao Fushiya1, Kazuhiko Koike1, Hirokazu Nishino1, Masato Matsushima2, Chisato Saeki3 and Hisao Tajiri3

Author Affiliations

1 Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The Jikei University Daisan Hospital, 4-11-1 Izumihon-cho, Komae- shi, Tokyo, 201-8601, Japan

2 Division of Clinical Epidemiology, The Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8 Nishishinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8461, Japan

3 Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8 Nishishinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8461, Japan

For all author emails, please log on.

BMC Cancer 2013, 13:52  doi:10.1186/1471-2407-13-52

Published: 2 February 2013

Abstract

Background

Elevated Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) has been related to poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) undergoing surgical resection or receiving sorafenib. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of GPS in patients with various stages of the disease and with different liver functional status.

Methods

One hundred and fifty patients with newly diagnosed HCC were prospectively evaluated. Patients were divided according to their GPS scores. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify clinicopathological variables associated with overall survival; the identified variables were then compared with those of other validated staging systems.

Results

Elevated GPS were associated with increased asparate aminotransferase (P<0.0001), total bilirubin (P<0.0001), decreased albumin (P<0.0001), α-fetoprotein (P=0.008), larger tumor diameter (P=0.003), tumor number (P=0.041), vascular invasion (P=0.0002), extra hepatic metastasis (P=0.02), higher Child-Pugh scores (P<0.0001), and higher Cancer Liver Italian Program scores (P<0.0001). On multivariate analysis, the elevated GPS was independently associated with worse overall survival.

Conclusions

Our results demonstrate that the GPS can serve as an independent marker of poor prognosis in patients with HCC in various stages of disease and different liver functional status.

Keywords:
The Glasgow Prognostic Score; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Prognostic marker