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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Cancer odor in the blood of ovarian cancer patients: a retrospective study of detection by dogs during treatment, 3 and 6 months afterward

György Horvath1*, Håkan Andersson2 and Szilárd Nemes3

Author affiliations

1 Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Oncology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg SE-41345, Sweden

2 Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg SE-41345, Sweden

3 Regional Cancer Centre (West), Western Sweden Health Care Region, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg SE-41345, Sweden

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Citation and License

BMC Cancer 2013, 13:396  doi:10.1186/1471-2407-13-396

Published: 26 August 2013

Abstract

Background

In recent decades it has been noted that trained dogs can detect specific odor molecules emitted by cancer cells. We have shown that the same odor can also be detected in the patient’s blood with high sensitivity and specificity by trained dogs. In the present study, we examined how the ability of dogs to detect this smell was affected by treatment to reduce tumor burden, including surgery and five courses of chemotherapy.

Methods

In Series I, one drop of plasma from each of 42 ovarian cancer patients (taken between the fifth and sixth courses of chemotherapy) and 210 samples from healthy controls were examined by two trained dogs. All 42 patients in Series I had clinical complete responses, all except two had normal CA-125 values and all were declared healthy after primary treatment. In Series II, the dogs examined blood taken from a new subset of 10 patients at 3 and 6 months after the last (sixth) course of chemotherapy.

Results

In Series I, the dogs showed high sensitivity (97%) and specificity (99%), for detecting viable cancer cells or molecular cancer markers in the patients’ plasma. Indeed, 29 of 42 patients died within 5 years. In Series II, the dogs indicated positive samples from three of the 10 patients at both the 3- and 6-month follow-up. All three patients had recurrences, and two died 3–4 years after the end of treatment. This was one of the most important findings of this study. Seven patients were still alive in January 2013.

Conclusions

Although our study was based on a limited number of selected patients, it clearly suggests that canine detection gave us a very good assessment of the prognosis of the study patients. Being able to detect a marker based on the specific cancer odor in the blood would enhance primary diagnosis and enable earlier relapse diagnosis, consequently increasing survival.

Keywords:
Trained dogs; Cancer odor in the blood; Ovarian carcinoma; Survival