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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Chemokine (C-X-C) ligand 1 (CXCL1) protein expression is increased in aggressive bladder cancers

Makito Miyake1, Adrienne Lawton2, Steve Goodison3, Virginia Urquidi3, Evan Gomes-Giacoia1, Ge Zhang1, Shanti Ross1, Jeongsoon Kim1 and Charles J Rosser13*

Author affiliations

1 Cancer Research Institute, Orlando Health, Orlando, FL 32827, USA

2 Department of Pathology, Orlando Health, Orlando, FL 32806, USA

3 Nonagen Bioscience Corporation, Orlando, FL 32827, USA

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Citation and License

BMC Cancer 2013, 13:322  doi:10.1186/1471-2407-13-322

Published: 1 July 2013

Abstract

Background

Chemokines, including chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), may regulate tumor epithelial-stromal interactions that facilitate tumor growth and invasion. Studies have linked CXCL1 expression to gastric, colon and skin cancers, but limited studies to date have described CXCL1 protein expression in human bladder cancer (BCa).

Methods

CXCL1 protein expression was examined in 152 bladder tissue specimens (142 BCa) by immunohistochemical staining. The expression of CXCL1 was scored by assigning a combined score based on the proportion of cells staining and intensity of staining. CXCL1 expression patterns were correlated with clinicopathological features and follow-up data.

Results

CXCL1 protein expression was present in cancerous tissues, but was entirely absent in benign tissue. CXCL1 combined immunostaining score was significantly higher in high-grade tumors relative to low-grade tumors (p = 0.012). Similarly, CXCL1 combined immunostaining score was higher in high stage tumors (T2-T4) than in low stage tumors (Ta-T1) (p < 0.0001). An increase in the combined immunostaining score of CXCL1 was also associated with reduced disease-specific survival.

Conclusion

To date, this is the largest study describing increased CXCL1 protein expression in more aggressive phenotypes in human BCa. Further studies are warranted to define the role CXCL1 plays in bladder carcinogenesis and progression.

Keywords:
Bladder Cancer; Chemokine Ligand 1 (CXCL1); Tumor Grade; Tumor Stage