Table 2

Covariate-adjusted hazard ratios for bladder calculus among the sampled patients
Variable Bladder cancer
Odds ratio 95% CI P value
Prior bladder calculus
  Yes 3.42 2.48-4.72 <0.001
No (reference group) 1.00
Monthly Income
  NT$1-15,840 (reference group) 1.00
  NT$15,841-25,000 0.98 0.97-1.01 0.317
  ≥NT$25,001 1.01 0.98-1.02 0.891
Geographic region
  Northern (reference group) 1.00
  Central 0.92 0.80-1.07 0.279
  Eastern 0.98 0.86-1.11 0.692
  Southern 0.94 0.68-1.31 0.722
Hypertension 0.80 0.72-0.89 0.008
Renal disease 2.65 2.28-3.08 <0.001
Coronary heart disease 0.87 0.73-1.05 0.060
Diabetes 0.98 0.86-1.11 0.742
Bladder outlet obstruction 0.90 0.46-1.76 0.751
Urinary tract infection 1.23 1.07-1.38 <0.001
Tobacco use disorder 1.46 1.26-1.68 <0.001
Alcohol abuse 0.99 0.88-1.44 0.983
Obesity 1.03 0.98-1.06 0.056

Notes: CI = confidence interval; OR was calculated using Cox proportional hazard regression, stratified by sex, age, and urbanization level group.

Chung et al.

Chung et al. BMC Cancer 2013 13:117   doi:10.1186/1471-2407-13-117

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