Table 1

Demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors of the study population
Variables Cases (n = 309)* Controls (n = 294)* P-value †
Age at recruitment 60.0 (11.8) 61.4 (13.96) 0.19
Sex:
Men 160 (51.8) 161 (54.8)
Women 149 (48.2) 133 (45.2) 0.46
FH risk***:
Low 226 (78.7) 265 (99.6)
Medium/High 61 (21.3) 1 (0.4) <0.001
Smoking status:
Never 103 (33.3) 90 (30.6)
Former 87 (28.2) 115 (39.4)
Current 41 (13.3) 45 (15.3) 0.18
Not known 78 (25.2) 44 (15.0)
Physical activity (cycling & other sport in hours/week) ‡
0 125 (56.6) 128 (53.6)
0.1-3.5 56 (25.3) 65 (27.2)
3.6-7 23 (10.4) 24 (10.0)
>7 17 (7.7) 22 (9.2) 0.48
BMI‡ ¥:
<25 92 (29.8) 80 (27.2)
25-29.9 102 (33.0) 105 (35.7)
≥30 36 (11.7) 64 (21.8) 0.02
Unknown 79 (25.6) 45 (15.3)
Alcohol intake (g/day)‡ 12.7 (14.6) 12.9 (13.9) 0.76
Energy intake (kJ/day)‡ 11016 (3896) 11054 (4572) 0.80
DEPCAT††
1 33 (10.7) 33 (11.2)
2 76 (24.6) 66 (22.4)
3 78 (25.2) 79 (26.9)
4 69 (22.3) 66 (22.4)
5 24 (7.8) 22 (7.5)
6 27 (8.7) 27 (9.2)
7 2 (0.6) 1 (0.3) 0.99
PMH Bowel disease (incl. IBS) 18 (7.8) 23 (9.3) 0.56
PMH Cancer ± 24 (10.3) 13 (5.1) 0.03
Statin use: at least 1 25 (8.1) 44 (15.0) <0.01
prescription dispensed 2/12 Male: 18 Male: 31 Male: <0.05
pre-recruitment Female: 7 Female: 13 Female:0.10
Statin use: at least 24 (7.8) 38 (12.9) 0.04
1prescription dispensed 7/12 Male: 17 Male: 28 Male: 0.08
pre-recruitment Female: 7 Female: 10 Female: 0.32
Statin use: 2+ prescriptions 24 (7.8) 38 (12.9) 0.04
dispensed. First being at least Male: 17 Male: 27 Male: 0.11
2/12 pre-recruitment Female: 7 Female: 11 Female: 0.22
Statin use: 2+ prescriptions 23 (7.4) 34 (11.6) 0.084
dispensed. First prescription at Male: 16 Male: 25 Male: 0.14
least 7/12 pre-recruitement Female: 7 Female: 9 Female: 0.45
Regular use of NSAIDs**:
Yes 53 (69.7) 87 (70.7)
No 165 (17.1) 146 (17.9) 0.003
Not known 91 (13.1) 61 (11.4)
HRT use:
Yes 30 (28.0) 40 (37.0)
No 76 (71.0) 68 (63.0) 0.17
Not known 1 (0.9) 0 (0)
Hormonal contraception use:
Yes 36 (33.6) 40 (37.0)
No 70 (65.4) 67 (62.0) 0.60
Not known 1 (0.9) 1 (0.9)

* Mean values and in parenthese standard deviations for quantitative variables; number of subjects and in parentheses percentages for categorical variables.

† P-values from the Pearson χ2 for categorical variables; from t-test for continuous variables. All statistical tests were 2-sided.

‡ P-values were computed from the natural logarithmic transformed variables.

** Regular use = at least four times a week for at least one month.

†† DEPCAT (Carstairs deprivation index) based on the 2001 Census data; 7 categories ranging from very low deprivation (DEPCAT 1) to very high deprivation (DEPCAT 7).

¥ In calculating the BMI the weight and height used were from 1 year before diagnosis for cases and one year before recruitment for controls.

± Information on past cancers was self-reported by patients via the lifestyle questionnaire. The question that was asked was: “up until a year ago had you ever been given a diagnosis of cancer?”. Type and staging were not requested.

*** Family history risk was assigned according to the Scottish guidelines: According to the Scottish Executive cancer guidelines ( http://www.sehd.scot.nhs.uk/ webcite), the criteria for high family history risk of colorectal cancer are: 1) at least three family members affected by colorectal cancer or at least two with colorectal cancer and one with endometrial cancer in at least two generations; one affected relative must be ≤50 years old at diagnosis and one of the relatives must be a first degree relative of the other two; or 2) presence of the HNPCC syndrome; or 3) untested first degree relatives of known gene carriers. The criteria for moderate risk are: 1) one first degree relative affected by colorectal cancer when aged <45 years old; or 2) two affected first degree relatives with one aged <55 years old; or 3) three affected relatives with colorectal or endometrial cancer, who are first degree relatives of each other and one a first degree relative of the consultant. Individuals that do not fulfil all the above criteria are classified as low family history risk (Scottish Executive cancer guidelines).

Lakha et al.

Lakha et al. BMC Cancer 2012 12:487   doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-487

Open Data