Expression of MMP-9 and VEGF. (A) Glioblastoma cells were treated with parthenolide, and MMP-9 and VEGF gene expression was analysed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Parthenolide attenuated the mRNA expression of MMP-9 and VEGF compared with the control. (B) Secretion of MMP-9 and VEGF protein from parthenolide-treated glioblastoma cells was assessed by ELISA. ELISA analysis showed that parthenolide decreased the protein levels of VEGF and MMP-9 in the culture media of glioblastoma cell. Representative data are shown for both assays. * indicates p < 0.0001.
Nakabayashi and Shimizu BMC Cancer 2012 12:453 doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-453