Cytokine measurement in the supernatants of tissue culture. Concentrations of IL-1β (Α),IL-6 (B),IL-17A (C), TGF-β (D), IL-23 (E),IL-21 (F) in the supernatant of colorectal normal tissues (n = 20) and CRC tissues(n = 20; early stage, n = 9; advanced stage, n = 11) of the same CRC patients were measured by ELISA. The cytokine concentration (pg/mg tissue) is expressed as mean ± SEM.
Wang et al. BMC Cancer 2012 12:418 doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-418