Table 2

Characteristics of the included studies
Authors, year No. of patients Mean age Status of cancer Current treatment Treatment group: Intervention Control group: Intervention Outcome measures Outcome assessment Results
Program length, frequency, duration Program length, frequency, duration a) Short-term follow-up
b) Long-term follow-up
Banasik et al., 2011 [23] 18 62.9 II-IV At least 2 month post-treatment Iyengar Yoga: yoga postures Wait-list, no treatment Health-related quality of life (FACT-B) No significant effects.
8 weeks, twice weekly, 90 minutes 8 weeks a) Week 8
b) NA
Banerjee et al., 2007 [24] 68 44 II-III Radiotherapy Integrated yoga program: yoga postures, deep relaxation, breathing techniques, meditation, guided imagery, group awareness Supportive counseling and advice to take light exercise Anxiety (HADS) Significant short-term effects on anxiety (p < 0.001), depression (p < 0.001), perceived stress (p < 0.001).
6 weeks, frequency NR, 90 minutes 6 weeks, frequency and duration NR Depression (HADS)
Perceived stress (PSS)
a) Week 6
b) NA
Blank et al., 2003 [25] 18 NR I-III Antiestrogen or aromatase inhibitor, at least 8 weeks post-chemotherapy Iyengar yoga: yoga postures, deep relaxation, meditation, chanting Wait-list, no treatment Questionnaire regarding perceived stress, psychological outcomes No group comparison.
8 weeks, twice weekly, duration NR 8 weeks a) Week 6
b) NA
Bower et al., 2011 [26] 31 53.9 0-II No local and/or adjuvant cancer therapy Iyengar yoga: postures, breathing techniques Health education Vitality (SF-36) Significant short-term effects on depression (p = 0.026).
12 weeks, twice weekly, 90 minutes 12 weeks, once weekly, 120 minutes Depression (BDI) Clinically important long-term effects on vitality.
Perceived stress (PSS)
a) weeks 12 to 14
b) week 24
Carson et al., 2009 [27] 37 54.4 I-II No current chemotherapy or hormone replacement therapy Yoga of Awareness: yoga postures, breathing techniques, meditation, study of pertinent topics, group discussion Wait-list, no treatment Daily diary regarding negative mood, symptom-related distress Significant short-term effects on symptom-related distress (p < 0.0001).
8 weeks, once weekly, 120 minutes 8 weeks a) Week 6 Significant long-term effects on symptom-related distress (p < 0.0001) and negative mood (p < 0.0001).
b) Week 20
Chandwani et al., 2010 [28] 81 NR 0-III Radiotherapy Yoga based on Patanjali`s yoga sutras: yoga postures, deep relaxation, breath control, meditation Wait-list, no treatment Health-related quality of life (SF-36) Significant short-term effects on SF-36 physical component score (p = 0.04), general health (p = 0.005), physical function (p = 0.04).
6 weeks, twice weekly, 60 minutes 6 weeks Depression (CES-D) No significant long-term effects.
Anxiety (STAI)
Intrusion/avoidance (IES)
a) Week 7
b) Week 18
Danhauer et al., 2009 [29] 44 55.8 Any Any Restorative yoga: yoga postures, breathing techniques, deep relaxation, meditation Wait-list, no treatment Health-related quality of life (FACT-B, FACIT-Sp, SF-12) Significant short-term effects on mental well-being (p = 0.004), spiritual well-being (p = 0.0009), depression (p = 0.026), positive affect (p = 0.01).
10 weeks, once weekly, 75 minutes 10 weeks Depression (CES-D)
Positive and negative affect (PANAS)
a) Week 10
b) NA
Kovačič & Kovačič, 2011 [30] 32 NR I-II Radiotherapy, chemotherapy Yoga in Daily Life® System: breathing techniques, deep relaxation, progressive muscle relaxation, meditation Standard physiotherapy Mental well-being (GHQ-12) Significant short-term effects on mental well-being (p < 0.0005), perceived stress (p < 0.0005).
1 week, 7 times a week, 45 minutes 1 week Psychological distress (RSCL) Significant long-term effects on mental well-being (p < 0.0005), psychological distress (p < 0.0005), perceived stress (p < 0.0005).
Standard physiotherapy Perceived stress (PSS)
1 week a) Week 2
b) Week 5
Littman et al., 2011 [31] 63 60.6 0-III At least 3 month post-treatment Viniyoga: yoga postures, breathing techniques, deep relaxation, meditation Wait-list, no treatment Health-related quality of life (FACT-B) No significant effects.
6 months, 1 to 3 times a week 75 minutes 6 month a) Week 48
b) NA
Moadel et al., 2007 [32] 164 54.81 I-III Any Hatha yoga: yoga postures, breathing, techniques, meditation Wait-list, no treatment Health-related quality of life (FACT-G, FACIT-Sp) Significant short-term effect on social well-being (p < 0.018).
12 weeks, once weekly, 90 minutes 12 weeks Anxiety (Distressed Mood Index)
Psychological distress (Distressed Mood Index)
a) Week 12
b) Week 24 (NR)
Raghavendra et al., 2007 [33] 98 NR II-III Chemotherapy Integrated yoga program: yoga postures, breathing techniques, relaxation with imagery, chanting Brief supportive therapy Health-related quality of life (FLIC) Significant short-term effects on overall health-related quality of life (p < 0.001), anxiety (p < 0.001), depression (p < 0.001), symptom distress (p < 0.001).
Program length NR, 30 minutes 4 times, 60 minutes every 10 days Program length NR, 60 minutes once, 30 minutes every 10 days Anxiety (STAI)
Depression (BDI)
Symptom distress (Subjective Symptom Checklist)
a) NR
b) NA
Vadiraja et al., 2009 [34-36] 88 47.23 II-III Radiotherapy Integrated yoga program: yoga postures, breathing techniques, relaxation with imagery, meditation Brief supportive therapy Health-related quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30) Anxiety (HADS) Depression (HADS) Positive and negative affect (PANAS) Significant short-term effects on emotional function (p = 0.001), cognitive function (p = 0.03), anxiety (p < 0.001), depression (p = 0.002), positive affect (p = 0.007), negative affect (p < 0.001), perceived stress (p < 0.001), psychological distress (p < 0.001).
6 weeks, 60 minutes at least 3 times a week (18–24 session in total) 6 weeks, 15 minutes every 10 days (3–4 sessions in total)
Perceived stress (PSS)
Psychological distress (RSCL)
a) Week 6
b) NA

Abbreviations: BDI: Beck’s Depression Inventory; CES-D: Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; EORTC QLQ-C30: European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30; FACT: Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (B: Breast; G: General; Sp: Spirituality); FLIC: Functional Living Index for Cancer; GHQ-12: General Health Questionnaire-12; HADS: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; IES: Impact of Events Scale; PANAS: Positive & negative affect schedule; PSS: support cancer care; RSCL: Rotterdam Symptom Checklist; STAI: State Trait Anxiety Inventory; SF-36/-12: Medical Outcomes Study 36/12-item short-form survey; NA: not applicable; NR: not reported.

Cramer et al.

Cramer et al. BMC Cancer 2012 12:412   doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-412

Open Data