The network of interactions between cancer and various variables acting on individuals and species in ecosystems. Arrows represent direct (e.g. , oncogenic pathogens cause cancer) or evolutionary (e.g. , predation exert selective pressure on parasite virulence) responses. Arrows are in two colors for clarity (blue for unidirectional relationships, dark for reciprocal, or potentially reciprocal, relationships).
Roche et al. BMC Cancer 2012 12:387 doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-387