Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Hepatitis viruses infection and risk of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: evidence from a meta-analysis

Yanming Zhou1, Yanfang Zhao2, Bin Li1, Jiyi Huang1, Lupeng Wu1, Donghui Xu1, Jiamei Yang3* and Jia He2*

Author affiliations

1 Department of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreato-Vascular Surgery, First affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, China

2 Department of Health Statistics, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China

3 Department of Special Treatment, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China

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Citation and License

BMC Cancer 2012, 12:289  doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-289

Published: 16 July 2012



Studies investigating the association between Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) have reported inconsistent findings. We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to explore this relationship.


A comprehensive search was conducted to identify the eligible studies of hepatitis infections and ICC risk up to September 2011. Summary odds ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated with random-effects models using Review Manager version 5.0.


Thirteen case–control studies and 3 cohort studies were included in the final analysis. The combined risk estimate of all studies showed statistically significant increased risk of ICC incidence with HBV and HCV infection (OR = 3.17, 95% CI, 1.88-5.34, and OR = 3.42, 95% CI, 1.96-5.99, respectively). For case–control studies alone, the combined OR of infection with HBV and HCV were 2.86 (95% CI, 1.60-5.11) and 3.63 (95% CI, 1.86-7.05), respectively, and for cohort studies alone, the OR of HBV and HCV infection were 5.39 (95% CI, 2.34-12.44) and 2.60 (95% CI, 1.36-4.97), respectively.


This study suggests that both HBV and HCV infection are associated with an increased risk of ICC.