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Open Access Research article

NF-κB2 mutation targets survival, proliferation and differentiation pathways in the pathogenesis of plasma cell tumors

Brian A McCarthy1, Liqun Yang14, Jane Ding1, Mingqiang Ren1, William King2, Mohammed ElSalanty3, Ibrahim Zakhary3, Mohamed Sharawy3, Hongjuan Cui4* and Han-Fei Ding1*

Author Affiliations

1 Cancer Center and Department of Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, GA, 30912, USA

2 Cancer Center Genomics Core, Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, GA, 30912, USA

3 Department of Oral Biology, College of Dental Medicine, Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, GA, 30912, USA

4 State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Institute of Sericulture and Systems Biology, College of Biotechnology, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400716, China

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BMC Cancer 2012, 12:203  doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-203

Published: 29 May 2012

Abstract

Background

Abnormal NF-κB2 activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma, a cancer of plasma cells. However, a causal role for aberrant NF-κB2 signaling in the development of plasma cell tumors has not been established. Also unclear is the molecular mechanism that drives the tumorigenic process. We investigated these questions by using a transgenic mouse model with lymphocyte-targeted expression of p80HT, a lymphoma-associated NF-κB2 mutant, and human multiple myeloma cell lines.

Methods

We conducted a detailed histopathological characterization of lymphomas developed in p80HT transgenic mice and microarray gene expression profiling of p80HT B cells with the goal of identifying genes that drive plasma cell tumor development. We further verified the significance of our findings in human multiple myeloma cell lines.

Results

Approximately 40% of p80HT mice showed elevated levels of monoclonal immunoglobulin (M-protein) in the serum and developed plasma cell tumors. Some of these mice displayed key features of human multiple myeloma with accumulation of plasma cells in the bone marrow, osteolytic bone lesions and/or diffuse osteoporosis. Gene expression profiling of B cells from M-protein-positive p80HT mice revealed aberrant expression of genes known to be important in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma, including cyclin D1, cyclin D2, Blimp1, survivin, IL-10 and IL-15. In vitro assays demonstrated a critical role of Stat3, a key downstream component of IL-10 signaling, in the survival of human multiple myeloma cells.

Conclusions

These findings provide a mouse model for human multiple myeloma with aberrant NF-κB2 activation and suggest a molecular mechanism for NF-κB2 signaling in the pathogenesis of plasma cell tumors by coordinated regulation of plasma cell generation, proliferation and survival.