Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Serum estradiol levels associated with specific gene expression patterns in normal breast tissue and in breast carcinomas

Vilde D Haakensen123, Trine Bjøro24, Torben Lüders5, Margit Riis56, Ida K Bukholm26, Vessela N Kristensen125, Melissa A Troester7, Marit M Homen8, Giske Ursin10119, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale12 and Åslaug Helland123*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital Radiumhospitalet, Oslo, Norway

2 Institute for Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

3 Department of Oncology, Oslo University Hospital Radiumhospitalet, Oslo, Norway

4 Deptartment of Medical Biochemistry and Institute of Clinical Biochemistry, Oslo University Hospital Radiumhospitalet, Oslo, Norway

5 Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, Division of Medicine and Laboratory Sciences, Institute for Clinical Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, University of Oslo, Lørenskog, Norway

6 Department of Surgery, Akerhus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway

7 Department of Epidemiology and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA

8 Department of Radiology, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway

9 Department of Nutrition, School of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

10 Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, USA

11 Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway

For all author emails, please log on.

BMC Cancer 2011, 11:332  doi:10.1186/1471-2407-11-332

Published: 3 August 2011



High serum levels of estradiol are associated with increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Little is known about the gene expression in normal breast tissue in relation to levels of circulating serum estradiol.


We compared whole genome expression data of breast tissue samples with serum hormone levels using data from 79 healthy women and 64 breast cancer patients. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) was used to identify differentially expressed genes and multivariate linear regression was used to identify independent associations.


Six genes (SCGB3A1, RSPO1, TLN2, SLITRK4, DCLK1, PTGS1) were found differentially expressed according to serum estradiol levels (FDR = 0). Three of these independently predicted estradiol levels in a multivariate model, as SCGB3A1 (HIN1) and TLN2 were up-regulated and PTGS1 (COX1) was down-regulated in breast samples from women with high serum estradiol. Serum estradiol, but none of the differentially expressed genes were significantly associated with mammographic density, another strong breast cancer risk factor. In breast carcinomas, expression of GREB1 and AREG was associated with serum estradiol in all cancers and in the subgroup of estrogen receptor positive cases.


We have identified genes associated with serum estradiol levels in normal breast tissue and in breast carcinomas. SCGB3A1 is a suggested tumor suppressor gene that inhibits cell growth and invasion and is methylated and down-regulated in many epithelial cancers. Our findings indicate this gene as an important inhibitor of breast cell proliferation in healthy women with high estradiol levels. In the breast, this gene is expressed in luminal cells only and is methylated in non-BRCA-related breast cancers. The possibility of a carcinogenic contribution of silencing of this gene for luminal, but not basal-like cancers should be further explored. PTGS1 induces prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production which in turn stimulates aromatase expression and hence increases the local production of estradiol. This is the first report studying such associations in normal breast tissue in humans.

Serum estradiol; SCGB3A1; HIN1; TLN2; PTGS1; COX1; AREG; GREB1; TFF; normal breast tissue; gene expression