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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Localization of uPAR and MMP-9 in lipid rafts is critical for migration, invasion and angiogenesis in human breast cancer cells

Hari Raghu1, Prasanna Kumar Sodadasu1, Rama Rao Malla1, Christopher S Gondi1, Norman Estes2 and Jasti S Rao13*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, One Illini Drive, Peoria, IL 61605, USA

2 Department of Surgery, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, One Illini Drive, Peoria, IL 61605, USA

3 Department of Neurosurgery, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, One Illini Drive, Peoria, IL 61605, USA

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BMC Cancer 2010, 10:647  doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-647

Published: 24 November 2010

Abstract

Background

uPAR and MMP-9, which play critical roles in tumor cell invasion, migration and angiogenesis, have been shown to be associated with lipid rafts.

Methods

To investigate whether cholesterol could regulate uPAR and MMP-9 in breast carcinoma, we used MβCD (methyl beta cyclodextrin, which extracts cholesterol from lipid rafts) to disrupt lipid rafts and studied its effect on breast cancer cell migration, invasion, angiogenesis and signaling.

Results

Morphological evidence showed the association of uPAR with lipid rafts in breast carcinoma cells. MβCD treatment significantly reduced the colocalization of uPAR and MMP-9 with lipid raft markers and also significantly reduced uPAR and MMP-9 at both the protein and mRNA levels. Spheroid migration and invasion assays showed inhibition of breast carcinoma cell migration and invasion after MβCD treatment. In vitro angiogenesis studies showed a significant decrease in the angiogenic potential of cells pretreated with MβCD. MβCD treatment significantly reduced the levels of MMP-9 and uPAR in raft fractions of MDA-MB-231 and ZR 751 cells. Phosphorylated forms of Src, FAK, Cav, Akt and ERK were significantly inhibited upon MβCD treatment. Increased levels of soluble uPAR were observed upon MβCD treatment. Cholesterol supplementation restored uPAR expression to basal levels in breast carcinoma cell lines. Increased colocalization of uPAR with the lysosomal marker LAMP1 was observed in MβCD-treated cells when compared with untreated cells.

Conclusion

Taken together, our results suggest that cholesterol levels in lipid rafts are critical for the migration, invasion, and angiogenesis of breast carcinoma cells and could be a critical regulatory factor in these cancer cell processes mediated by uPAR and MMP-9.