Table 6

Impact of smokeless tobacco on stillbirths and perinatal mortality


Location, Type of Study


Stillbirths/Perinatal Outcomes

Observational studies

Gupta and Subramoney 2006 [47]

India. Population-based.

Cohort study. N = 1110 pregnant women.

Compared the impact on stillbirths of women using smokeless tobacco (exposed) vs. non-users (unexposed).

SBR: adj. HR = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.4 – 4.8).

[18/202 (8.9%) vs. 28/908 (3.1%) among exposed and unexposed groups, respectively].

Krishna 1978 [48]

India (Pune). Hospital-based.

Cross-sectional study. N = 1388 singleton births.

Analyzed the impact on stillbirths of pregnant women who were tobacco chewers vs. non-users.

SBR: 3 times higher risk among tobacco users vs. controls.

Shah et al. 2000 [49]

India. Multicentre, hospital-based.

Case-control study.

Compared the impact on perinatal mortality of women using tobacco vs. non-users.

PMR: 1.5 times higher risk (95% CI: 1.3 – 1.7).

Yakoob et al. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9(Suppl 1):S3   doi:10.1186/1471-2393-9-S1-S3

Open Data