Table 5

Impact of smoking cessation on stillbirth and perinatal mortality


Location and Type of Study

Intervention/Study objectives

Stillbirths/Perinatal Outcomes

Reviews and meta-analyses

Lumley et al. 2004 [33]

UK, Ireland, USA.

Meta-analysis (Cochrane). 6 RCTs included.

To assess the effects of smoking cessation programs implemented during pregnancy (intervention) vs. standard care/no program (controls).

SBR: RR = 1.16 [NS] [data from 5 RCTs; 35/2261 vs. 30/2264 in intervention and control groups, respectively].

PMR: RR = 1.13 [NS] [data from 3 RCTs; 41/2149 vs. 36/2186 in intervention and control groups, respectively].

Observational studies

Chun-Fai-Chan et al. 2005 [43]


Prospective cohort study. N = 269; N = 136 bupropion treatment vs. nonteratogen (N = 133) treatment.

To assess the impact of bupropion compared with a nonteratogenic smoking cessation aid on stillbirth rate.

SBR: 1/136 vs. 0/133 in bupropion vs. nonteratogen groups, respectively [NS].

Strandberg-Larsen et al. 2008 [45]

Denmark. Danish National Birth Cohort.

Prospective cohort study. N = 87, 032 singleton pregnancies (N = 1927 NRT users, 85,105 non-users)

Compared the impact on stillbirths of NRT use during pregnancy (exposed) vs. non-users (unexposed).

SBR: crude HR: 0.75 (95% CI: 0.37–1.15) [NS].

[4.2/1000 vs. 5.7/1000 births among NRT users vs. non-users, respectively].

Yakoob et al. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9(Suppl 1):S3   doi:10.1186/1471-2393-9-S1-S3

Open Data