Table 3

Complications reported in the HELLP syndrome

Maternal complications

Occurrence (%)

References


Eclampsia

4–9

[56]

Abruptio placentae

9–20

[3,9,35,45,57]

DIC

5–561

[35,36,58]

Acute renal failure

7–36

[4,57,59,60]

Severe ascites

4–11

[36]

Cerebral oedema

1–8

[14,36]

Pulmonary oedema

3–10

[3,36,60]

Wound hematoma/infection2

7–14

[3,56]

Subcapsular liver hematoma

Between 0.9% and <2%

[9,14,61-64]

Liver rupture

>200 cases or about 1.8%

[45,65]

Hepatic infarction

>30 cases combined with APS

[66]

Recurrent thrombosis

Associated with prothrombin gene 20210a mutation

[67]

Retinal detachment

1

[14]

Cerebral infarction

Few case reports

[68-71]

Cerebral Haemorrhage

1.5–403

[3,36,70]

Maternal death

1–25

[5,11]

Foetal/neonatal complications

Perinatal death

7.4–34

[9,72,73].

IUGR

38–61

[5,72,74]

Preterm delivery4

70 (15% < 28 gestational weeks)

[9]

Neonatal thrombocytopenia 5

15–50

[5,75]

RDS

5.7–40

[72,76,77]


1 depending on diagnostic criteria

2 after Caesarean section

3 in a highly selected group of patients

4 associated with increased risks of RDS, IVH and CP

5PLTs < 100·109/L

Haram et al. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:8   doi:10.1186/1471-2393-9-8

Open Data