Table 4

Results of the multilevel analysis of the predictors of indicators of use of maternal and child health services.

Characteristics

n

Odds Ratio (Std. Error)a


Antenatal care

Medical personnel at delivery

Postnatal care


Fixed Effectsb

Individual Factors

Education

None RC)

1013

1.00

1.00

1.00

Primary

537

1.88*** (0.30)

1.69*** (0.28)

1.65*** (0.25)

Secondary

501

2.01*** (0.43)

3.01*** (0.60)

2.06*** (0.38)

Post-secondary

107

5.03** (2.64)

10.68*** (4.88)

3.50*** (1.15)

Age at last birth in single years

2158

1.18** (0.07)

1.08 (0.07)

1.13* (0.07)

Square of age at last birth

2158

0.99** (0.001)

0.99 (0.001)

0.99* (0.001)

Ethnic Group

Hausa RC)

656

1.00

1.00

1.00

Yoruba

313

1.22 (0.51)

1.62 (0.58)

1.57 (0.52)

Igbo

221

2.09§(0.87)

3.76**** (1.49)

2.10* (0.78)

Fulani

136

0.68 (0.18)

0.77 (0.25)

1.22 (0.33)

Kanuri

66

0.67 (0.34)

1.72 (0.90)

0.97 (0.50)

Others

766

1.35 (0.32)

2.04** (0.53)

1.55§(0.38)

Child's rank of birth

3 + (RC)

750

1.00

1.00

1.00

1 -- 2

1408

1.17 (0.19)

1.22 (0.20)

1.10 (0.16)

Attitudes towards family planning

Disapprove (RC)

Approve

1097

1.00

1.00

1.00

1061

1.64*** (0.22)

1.28§(0.17)

1.58*** (0.20)

Ideal family size

Provided a non-numeric response (Up to God, etc.) (RC)

Provided a numeric response

1036

1.00

1.00

1.00

1122

1.14 (0.16)

1.71*** (0.24)

1.47** (0.19)

Household Factors

Household socio-economic status

Very poor (RC)

Poor

440

1.00

1.00

1.00

Medium

466

1.53* (0.27)

1.88** (0.43)

1.01 (0.20)

Rich

394

2.48*** (0.48)

2.72*** (0.62)

1.69** (0.34)

Very rich

431

3.76*** (0.87)

4.27*** (1.07)

2.46*** (0.55)

427

5.86*** (1.69)

4.34*** (1.23)

3.02*** (0.76)

Community Factors

Type of Place of Residence

Rural (RC)

Urban

1495

1.00

1.00

1.00

663

2.36*** (0.48)

1.69** (0.33)

1.63** (0.29)

Community media saturation

Low (RC)

Medium

858

1.00

1.00

1.00

High

692

1.51* (0.25)

1.44* (0.27)

1.51* (0.26)

608

1.29 (0.36)

2.17** (0.58)

1.20 (0.30)

Prevalence of small family norm in community

Low (< 11%) (RC)

Medium (11 -- 30%)

927

1.00

1.00

1.00

High (< 30%)

663

1.39 (0.30)

1.50§(0.33)

1.14 (0.24)

568

1.91* (0.58)

1.85* (0.53)

1.49 (0.40)

State-level Factors

Average number of people to a PHC in the state of residence

Small (< 5500) (RC)

Medium (5500 -- 9000)

Large (> 9000)

737

1.00

1.00

1.00

735

0.63 (0.24)

0.71 (0.24)

0.87 (0.30)

716

0.42* (0.16)

0.41** (0.14)

0.66 (0.23)

Random Effects

State Level Variance

0.70** (0.23)

0.56** (0.19)

0.60** (0.20)

Residual intra-class correlation

0.183

0.152

0.160

Log-likelihood

-939.50

-881.86

-1052.80

AIC

1931.01

1815.73

2157.61


Source: Nigerian National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey, 2005; Data on the ration of people to a Primary Health Center (PHC) came from the 2006 Core Welfare Indicator Questionnaire Survey, a national survey conducted by the Nigeria Federal Bureau of Statistics.

Notes: § p < 0.1; * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001

RC = reference category

Standard errors are in parenthesis

aModel with fixed effects at the individual, household, community and state levels, and random effects at the state level;

bfixed effects expressed as odds ratio

Babalola and Fatusi BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2009 9:43   doi:10.1186/1471-2393-9-43

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