Inter-pregnancy weight change impacts placental weight and is associated with the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the second pregnancy
1 Lifelong Health Division, Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB21 9SB, UK
2 Dugald Baird Centre for Research on Women’s Health, Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
3 Biomathematics & Statistics Scotland, Aberdeen AB21 9SB, UK
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2014, 14:40 doi:10.1186/1471-2393-14-40Published: 22 January 2014
The inter-pregnancy period is considered a teachable moment when women are receptive to weight- management guidance aimed at optimising pregnancy outcome in subsequent pregnancies. In population based studies inter-pregnancy weight change is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes but the impact on placental size is unknown.
The association between inter-pregnancy weight change and the primary risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the second pregnancy was investigated in 12,740 women with first two consecutive deliveries at a single hospital using logistic regression.
Compared with women who were weight stable, weight loss (>1BMI unit) between pregnancies was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery, low placental weight and small for gestational age (SGA) birth, while weight gain (>3BMI units) increased the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, emergency caesarean section, placental oversize and large for gestational age (LGA) birth at the second pregnancy. The relationship between weight gain and pre-eclampsia risk was evident in women who were overweight at first pregnancy only (BMI ≥25 units), while that between weight loss and preterm delivery was confined to women with a healthy weight at first pregnancy (BMI <25 units). In contrast, the association between weight loss and SGA was independent of first pregnancy BMI. A higher percentage of women who were obese at first pregnancy were likely to experience a large weight gain (P < 0.01) or weight loss (P < 0.001) between consecutive pregnancies compared with the normal BMI reference group.
Inter-pregnancy weight change in either direction increases the risk of a number of contrasting pregnancy complications, including extremes of placental weight. The placenta may lie on the causal pathway between BMI change and the risk of LGA or SGA birth.