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Open Access Research article

Prostaglandin pathway gene expression in human placenta, amnion and choriodecidua is differentially affected by preterm and term labour and by uterine inflammation

Robert J Phillips1, Michel A Fortier2 and Andrés López Bernal13*

Author Affiliations

1 Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Bristol, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, Bristol BS1 3NY, UK

2 Axe Reproduction, santé Périnatale et pédiatrie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec (CHUL), Université Laval, 2705 boulevard Laurier, Ste-Foy, QC G1V 4G2, Canada

3 St Michael’s Hospital, Southwell Street, Bristol BS2 8EG, UK

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BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2014, 14:241  doi:10.1186/1471-2393-14-241

Published: 22 July 2014

Abstract

Background

Elucidation of the biochemical pathways involved in activation of preterm and term human labour would facilitate the development of effective management and inform judgements regarding the necessity for preterm tocolysis and post-term induction. Prostaglandins act at all stages of human reproduction, and are potentially activators of labour.

Methods

Expression of 15 genes involved in prostaglandin synthesis, transport and degradation was measured by qPCR using tissue samples from human placenta, amnion and choriodecidua at preterm and full-term vaginal and caesarean delivery. Cellular localisation of eight prostaglandin pathway proteins was determined by immunohistochemistry.

Results

Expression of prostaglandin pathway genes was differentially affected by factors including gestational age at delivery, and the incidence and duration of labour. Chorioamnionitis/deciduitis was associated with upregulation of PTGS2 (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase)), along with the inflammatory genes IL8 (interleukin 8), S100A8 (S100 calcium binding protein A8) and TLR2 (toll-like receptor 2), in amnion and choriodecidua, and with downregulation of CBR1 (carbonyl reductase 1) and HPGD (hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase 15-(NAD)) in choriodecidua. Protein localisation differed greatly between the various maternal and fetal cell types.

Conclusions

Preterm and term labour are associated with distinct prostaglandin pathway expression profiles; inflammation provokes specific changes, unrelated to the presence of labour; spontaneous and induced term labour are indistinguishable.

Keywords:
Parturition; Inflammation; Pregnancy; Uterus