Table 2

Associations between paternal age and sociodemographic characteristics (Block 1), health behaviour, physical and mental health problems (Block 2) partner's present pregnancy (Block 3) and social relationships (Block 4) in expectant first-time fathers (35-39 years and ≥40 years) compared with a reference group aged 25-34 years
25-34 years 35-39 years ≥40 years
n=11 363 n=2 693 n=776
n % n % Crude OR (95% CI) ORa (95% CI) n % Crude OR (95% CI) ORa (95% CI)
Sociodemographics (Block 1)
Mother tongue other than Norwegianbc 733 6.5 205 7.6 1.19 (1.02-1.40) 1.26 (1.06-1.50) 78 10.1 1.62 (1.27-2.07) 1.40 (1.07-1.84)
Education
Primary school 191 1.7 62 2.3 1.48 (1.10-1.99) 1.55 (1.13-2.13) 35 4.5 2.75 (1.88-4.03) 2.67 (1.74-4.10)
Secondary school 3 780 33.3 830 30.8 ref ref 252 32.5 ref ref
Higher education ≤4 years 3 368 29.6 731 27.1 0.99 (0.89-1.10) 0.96 (0.86-1.09) 202 26.0 0.90 (0.74-1.09) 0.90 (0.73-1.11)
Higher education >4 years 3 720 32.7 1 000 37.1 1.22 (1.10-1.36) 1.03 (0.91-1.16) 264 34.0 1.06 (0.89-1.27) 0.83 (0.68-1.03)
Employment
Employed 8 968 78.9 2 192 81.4 ref ref 592 76.3 ref ref
Self-employed 1 066 9.4 328 12.2 1.26 (1.10-1.44) 1.42 (1.23-1.63) 129 16.6 1.83 (1.50-2.24) 1.92 (1.54-2.39)
Student 804 7.1 54 2.0 0.27 (0.21-0.36) 0.51 (0.37-0.68) 11 1.4 0.21 (0.11-0.38) 0.39 (0.21-0.73)
Unemployed/disabled/rehabilitation 216 1.9 50 1.9 0.95 (0.69-1.29) 1.47 (1.04-2.08) 25 3.2 1.75 (1.15-2.67) 2.02 (1.23-3.33)
Annual income NOK (Norwegian krone)
<200 000 1 271 11.2 114 4.2 0.46 (0.38-0.57) 0.48 (0.38-0.60) 39 5.0 0.61 (0.43-0.86) 0.50 (0.33-0.74)
200-299 999 1 765 15.5 256 9.5 0.75 (0.64-0.87) 0.69 (0.59-0.81) 82 10.6 0.92 (0.71-1.20) 0.69 (0.52-0.92)
300-399 999 3 995 35.2 775 28.8 ref ref 201 25.9 ref ref
400-499 999 2 262 19.9 633 23.5 1.44 (1.28-1.62) 1.42 (1.26-1.60) 155 20.0 1.36 (1.10-1.69) 1.40 (1.12-1.76)
≥500 000 1 916 16.9 887 32.9 2.39 (2.14-2.67) 2.43 (2.16-2.73) 290 37.4 3.01 (2.49-3.63) 3.29 (2.68-4.04)
Civil Status
Single statusc 182 1.6 66 2.5 1.45 (1.09-1.94) 1.90 (1.39-2.59) 44 5.7 3.16 (2.23-4.48) 3.58 (2.42-5.31)
Health behaviour, physical and mental health problems(Block 2)
Body Mass Index (kg/m2)
Normal (18.5-24.9) 5 319 46.8 1 050 39.0 ref ref 322 41.5 ref ref
Overweight or obesity (≥25) 5 967 52.5 1 629 60.5 1.38 (1.27-1.51) 1.42 (1.29-1.55) 452 58.2 1.25 (1.08-1.45) 1.28 (1.09-1.50)
Underweight (<18.5) 28 0.2 4 0.1 0.72 (0.25-2.07) 0.84 (0.27-2.54 1 0.1 0.59 (0.08-4.35) 0.47 (0.05-4.19)
Smokingc
Yes, sometimes 1 137 10.0 226 8.4 0.89 (0.76-1.03) 0.99 (0.85-1.17) 56 7.2 0.84 (0.63-1.12) 0.92 (0.69-1.24)
Yes, daily 1 075 9.5 302 11.2 1.26 (1.10-1.45) 1.41 (1.21-1.65) 98 12.6 1.52 (1.12-1.91) 1.46 (1.13-1.89)
Alcohol (frequency)
Less than once a month or never 2 535 22.3 523 19.4 0.68 (0.60-0.77) 0.74 (0.65-0.84) 161 20.7 0.57 (0.47-0.70) 0.58 (0.46-0.72)
Once a week/month 6 803 59.9 1 487 55.2 ref ref 412 53.1 ref ref
2-3 times a week 1 482 13.0 489 18.2 1.74 (1.54-1.96) 1.57 (1.39-1.79) 131 16.9 1.84 (1.48-2.27) 1.63 (1.30-2.04)
4-7 times a week 187 1.6 101 3.8 2.84 (2.20-3.67) 2.46 (1.88-3.20 40 52 4.34 (2.97-6.34) 3.59 (2.40-5.36)
Alcohol (≥5 unitse when consuming)
Never or do not drink alcohol 1 800 15.8 525 19.5 1.17 (1.04-1.32) 1.51 (1.32-1.72) 210 27.1 1.63 (1.39-1.96) 2.25 (1.83-2.77)
Less than once per month 4 447 39.1 1 107 41.1 ref ref 318 41.0 ref ref
1-3 times per month 3 595 31.6 708 26.3 0.79 (0.71-0.88) 0.67 (0.60-0.75) 147 18.9 0.57 (0.47-0.70) 0.44 (0.36-0.55)
Once or several times per week 1 157 10.2 267 9.9 0.93 (0.80-1.08) 0.64 (0.54-0.76) 69 8.9 0.83 (0.64-1.09) 0.50 (0.37-0.68)
Physical health problemsc
Cardiovascular disease 33 0.3 17 0.6 2.18 (1.21-3.92) 2.18 (1.16-4.09) 10 1.3 4.48 (2.20-9.13) 3.94 (1.79-8.66)
High blood pressure 179 1.6 90 3.3 2.16 (1.67-2.79) 1.69 (1.29-2.22) 39 5.0 3.31 (2.32-4.71) 2.60 (1.76-3.83)
Neck and shoulder pain 1 063 9.4 321 11.9 1.31 (1.15-1.50) 1.20 (1.03-1.39) 103 13.3 1.48 (1.19-1.84) 1.09 (0.85-1.40)
Low back pain 1 571 13.8 453 16.8 1.26 (1.12-1.41) 1.21 (1.07-1.37) 150 19.3 1.49 (1.24-1.80) 1.45 (1.18-1.79)
Mb Bechterew 63 0.6 16 0.6 1.07 (0.62-1.86) 0.85 (0.48-1.52) 13 1.7 3.06 (1.67-5.58) 2.16 (1.11-4.21)
Sexually transmitted diseasesd 611 5.4 182 6.8 1.28 (1.07-1.51) 1.26 (1.05-1.51) 52 6.7 1.26 (0.94-1.69) 1.32 (0.96-1.81)
Mental health problemsc
Sleeping problems 476 4.2 174 6.5 1.58 (1.32-1.89) 1.45 (1.19-1.77) 52 6.7 1.64 (1.22-2.21) 1.20 (0.86-1.69)
Previous depressive symptoms 1 161 10.2 323 12.0 1.20 (1.05-1.37) 1.22 (1.05-1.41) 120 15.5 1.61 (1.31-1.97) 1.44 (1.14-1.82)
Present pregnancybc(Block 3)
Medically assisted reproduction
Hormone treatment 302 2.7 106 3.9 1.63 (1.30-2.04) 1.43 (1.13-1.81) 32 4.1 1.75 (1.20-2.54) 1.70 (1.16-2.52)
Insemination 21 0.2 14 0.5 3.09 (1.57-6.09) 2.75 (1.34-5.63) 3 0.4 2.36 (0.70-7.92) 2.18 (0.60-7.90)
In vitro fertilisation 348 3.1 267 9.9 3.56 (3.01-4.20) 3.12 (2.62-3.72) 93 12.0 4.41 (3.46-5.62) 4.13 (3.17-5.39)
Unplanned pregnancy 1 695 14.9 290 10.8 0.69 (0.60-0.78) 0.79 (0.68-0.91) 111 14.3 0.96 (0.78-1.18) 1.04 (0.82-1.31)
Social relationships (Block 4)
Contact with family and friends
More than twice a week 7 574 66.7 1 645 61.1 ref ref 426 54.9 ref ref
Twice a week or less 3 659 32.2 1 016 37.7 1.28 (1.17-1.40) 1.22 (1.11-1.34) 343 44.2 1.67 (1.44-1.93) 1.48 (1.26-1.73)
No other support persons than partner 803 7.1 234 8.7 1.25 (1.07-1.45) 1.14 (0.97-1.34) 102 13.1 1.98 (1.59-2.47) 1.55 (1.22-1.98)
Partner relationship
Satisfaction with partner relationship 11 044 97.2 2 593 96.3 ref ref 739 95.2 ref ref
Dissatisfaction with partner relationship 211 1.9 79 2.9 1.59 (1.23-2.07) 1.48 (1.11-1.96) 31 4.0 2.20 (1.50-3.22) 1.52 (0.99-2.36)

Values shown for variables remaining in the final model only (n=14 832, % presented by column).

aOdds ratio adjusted for all other variables in the model.

bData from the partner's questionnaire.

cReference: Men unexposed to the variable studied.

dChlamydia, genital herpes, genital wart, gonorrhoea.

e1.5 cl. pure alcohol.

Nilsen et al.

Nilsen et al. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2013 13:29   doi:10.1186/1471-2393-13-29

Open Data