Table 1

Associations between socio-demographic characteristics of women and their postpartum EPDS
Characteristic EPDS<10* EPDS≥10* p-value**

Odds ratio***

(95% CI)

Demographics
Age (mean (95% CI)) 31.2 (30.8 - 31.6) 31.6 (30.3 - 32.8) 0.51 1.0 (0.9 - 1.1)
BMI (mean (95% CI)) 24.1 (23.6 - 24.5) 24.2 (22.9 - 25.4) 0.90 1.0 (0.9 - 1.0)
Marital status (n (%))
Married/common-law 406 (88.0) 55 (11.9) 0.17 1.0
Single/divorced 9 (75.0) 3 (25.0) 2.4 (0.6 - 9.3)
Education (n (%))
High school 36 (87.8) 5 (12.2) 0.96 1.0
Trade/undergrad 286 (87.7) 40 (12.2) 0.6 (0.1 - 7.0)
Graduate 93 (87.7) 13 (12.2) 0.6 (0.1 - 5.9)
Household Income (n (%))
< $20K 5 (83.3) 1 (16.7) 0.13 1.0
$20-$39K 12 (80.0) 3 (20.0) 1.2 (0.1 - 15.1)
$40-$69K 47 (78.3) 13 (21.7) 1.4 (0.1 - 12.9)
$70-$99K 107 (87.7) 15 (12.3) 0.7 (0.1 - 6.4)
≥$100K 236 (90.1) 26 (9.9) 0.5 (0.1 - 4.9)
Born in Canada (n (%))
Yes 349 (89.9) 39 (10.0) 0.01 1.0
No 63 (79.7) 16 (20.2) 2.3 (1.2 - 4.3)
Ethnicity (n (%))
Caucasian 363 (88.3) 48 (11.6) 0.30 1.0
Non-causasian 51 (83.6) 10 (16.4) 1.5 (0.7 - 3.1)
# of children (n (%))
0 57 (87.7) 8 (13.3) 0.28 1.0
1-2 172 (88.2) 23 (11.8) 1.0 (0.5 - 1.9)
3-4 4 (66.7) 2 (34.3) 7.3 (1.0 - 53.7)
Social/lifestyle
# of chronic conditions (n (%))
0 206 (85.1) 36 (14.9) 0.05 1.0
1 91 (91.9) 8 (8.1) 0.5 (0.2 - 1.1)
2 15 (78.9) 4 (21.0) 1.5 (0.5 - 4.8)
3 5 (62.5) 3 (37.5) 3.4 (0.8 – 15.0)
# of life event stresses (n (%))
During this pregnancy
0 207 (89.6) 24 (10.4) 0.02 1.0
1-2 184 (88.0) 25 (11.9) 1.2 (0.6 - 2.1)
>3 24 (72.7) 9 (27.2) 3.2 (1.3 - 7.7)
12 mos before pregnancy
0 196 (89.9) 22 (10.1) 0.08 1.0
1-2 149 (88.2) 20 (11.8) 1.2 (0.6 - 2.3)
>3 13 (72.2) 5 (27.8) 3.4 (1.1 - 10.5)
Before age 17
0 126 (89.3) 15 (10.6) 0.06 1.0
1-2 224 (89.2) 27 (10.7) 1.2 (0.6 - 2.6)
>3 11 (68.7) 5 (31.2) 3.8 (1.1 - 12.5)
Social support (mean (95% CI))
Prenatal 14.8 (14.7 - 15.0) 13.8 (13.1 - 14.5) 0.0043 0.8 (0.7 - 0.9)
Postpartum 14.7 (14.5 - 14.9) 13.0 (12.2 - 13.8) 0.0001 0.8 (0.7 - 0.9)
EPDS score by time points
(mean (95% CI)
Time A (1st trimester) 4.8 (4.1 - 5.6) 8.0 (6.5 - 9.5) 0.0006 1.31 (1.11-1.55)
Time B (2nd trimester) 5.0 (4.7 - 5.4) 8.4 (7.2 - 9.5) <0.0001 1.21 (1.13-1.30)
Time C (3rd trimester) 4.5 (4.2 - 4.8) 9.0 (7.9 - 10.1) <0.0001 1.33 (1.23-1.44)
Time E (12 weeks postpartum) 3.6 (3.4 - 3.8) 12.1 (11.4 - 12.9) <0.0001 n/a

* EPDS≥10 = “at least probable minor depression”. The frequency calculations differed by variable because of missing values in some cases (e.g. participant did not answer a question).

**Assessment of associations with Chi-square test for categorical variables or t-test for continuous variable.

***OR from univariate logistic regression.

Leung et al.

Leung et al. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2013 13:2   doi:10.1186/1471-2393-13-2

Open Data