Table 8

Delivery factors associated with amniotic fluid embolism

Australia (NSW)

Canada

Netherlands

UK

US


Delivery


Mode of delivery


(baseline group normal vaginal delivery)

caesarean section After labour RR 48.5 (6.1-380)

Without labour RR 8.1 (0.7-89)

caesarean section Cephalic aOR 12.5 (7.9-19.9)

Non-cephalic aOR 8.6 (4.3-17.4)

caesarean section RR 2.2 (0.5-11.1)

Cases occurring post delivery only

caesarean section aOR 20.3 (4.3-95.3)

caesarean section aOR 5.7 (3.7-8.7)


instrumental

RR 36.0 (4.4-300)

Forceps aOR 5.9 (3.4-10.3)

Vacuum aOR 2.9 (1.6-5.3)

Vacuum RR 1.5 (0.2-12.3)

Forceps or vacuum aOR 11.6 (1.7-79.8)

Forceps aOR 4.3 (1.9-7.6)

Vacuum aOR 1.9 (1.0-3.7)


vaginal breech birth

RR 151 (9.4-2400)

All cases

Caesarean section aOR¥ 23.3 (7.8-69.7)

Forceps or vacumm aOR¥ 8.9 (2.0-39.5)


Manual removal of placenta (vaginal births)

RR 19.4 (3.9-96)

*

*

*

*


Macrosomia

*

aOR 1.6 (0.9-3.0)

*

OR 2.4 (0.7-8.1)

*



Gestational age

< 37 weeks

RR 1.9 (0.4-8.6)

37-40 weeks

1.0 (referent)

≥ 41 weeks

RR 1.7 (0.6-4.8)

> 42 weeks

aOR 1.4 (0.9-2.3)

< 37 weeks

RR 9.7 (2.3-40.8)

> 42 weeks

RR 3.2 (0.4-25.8)

≥ 41 weeks

aOR0.4 (0.2-1)

*


RR = Relative Risk, aOR = adjusted Odds Ratio

* No data or no accurate or limited data

≈ Adjusted for age, parity, smoking status, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, bmi, placenta praevia, placenta abruption, labour induction, postdates and mode of delivery

¥ Adjusted for age, parity, smoking status, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, bmi, multiple pregnancy, placenta praevia, placenta abruption, labour induction, postdates and mode of delivery

Knight et al. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2012 12:7   doi:10.1186/1471-2393-12-7

Open Data