Table 4

Outcomes for different groups of Indigenous mothers and newborns, NT 2003-2005
Outcomes Groups Total no. Count and Per centa Odds Ratio [95% CI]a Adjusted odds ratio [95% CI]a
    Maternal
:
Mothers who gave birth at 32+ weeks gestation who had ≥5 antenatal visitsb TE Remote 1,194 1,030 (86.3%) 1.33 [0.95, 1.84] 1.31 [0.87, 1.98]
TE Urban 551 425 (77.1%) 0.71 [0.50, 1.01] 0.68 [0.44, 1.04]
CA Remote 462 325 (70.4%) 0.50 [0.35, 0.71] 0.55 [0.36, 0.86]
CA Urban 327 270 (82.6%) 1.00 1.00
Mothers who reported smoking in pregnancyc TE Remote 1,217 676 (55.6) 1.33 [1.04, 1.58] 1.47 [1.13, 1.90]
TE Urban 559 296 (53.0%) 1.20 [0.91, 1.57] 1.36 [1.02, 1.80]
CA Remote 469 135 (28.8%) 0.43 [0.32, 0.58] 0.43 [0.31, 0.58]
CA Urban 328 159 (48.5%) 1.00 1.00
Mothers who had epidural/spinal or narcotic pain relief during labourd TE Remote 1,103 329 (29.8%) 0.68 [0.52, 0.89] 0.71 [0.53, 0.95]
TE Urban 501 202 (40.3%) 1.09 [0.81, 1.46] 1.12 [0.82, 1.53]
CA Remote 421 134 (31.8%) 0.75 [0.55, 1.02] 0.68 [0.49, 0.95]
CA Urban 300 115 (38.3%) 1.00 1.00
Mothers who had a normal birthe TE Remote 1,217 605 (49.7%) 0.78 [0.61, 1.00] 0.47 [0.34, 0.66]
TE Urban 559 301 (53.9%) 0.92 [0.70, 1.22] 0.67 [0.46, 0.96]
CA Remote 469 222 (47.3%) 0.71 [0.54, 0.95] 0.52 [0.35, 0.76]
CA Urban 328 183 (55.8%) 1.00 1.00
    Neonatal
:
Healthy babyf TE Remote 1,217 966 (79.4%) 0.78 [0.60, 1.01] 0.79 [0.58,1.10]
TE Urban 559 465 (83.2%) 0.89 [0.62, 1.26] 1.00 [0.64, 1.57]
CA Remote 469 373 (79.5%) 0.79 [0.57, 1.08] 0.83 [0.56, 1.23]
CA Urban 328 267 (81.4%) 1.00 1.00
Newborns born preterm (< 37 weeks gestation)g TE Remote 1,217 155 (12.7%) 1.69 [1.10, 2.62] 2.09 [1.20,3.64]
TE Urban 559 55 (9.8%) 1.27 [0.78, 2.07] 1.48 [0.81, 2.70]
CA Remote 469 50 (10.7%) 1.39 [0.84, 2.28] 1.40 [0.75, 2.61]
CA Urban 328 26 (7.9%) 1.00 1.00
Newborns with low birthweight (<2,500 g)h TE Remote 1,217 144 (11.8%) 1.38 [0.91, 2.10] 1.07 [0.56, 2.03]
TE Urban 559 47 (8.4%) 0.95 [0.58, 1.54] 0.78 [0.38, 1.60]
CA Remote 469 40 (8.5%) 0.96 [0.58, 1.59] 0.82 [0.38, 1.75]
CA Urban 328 29 (8.8%) 1.00 1.00
Newborns admitted to special care (SC)i TE Remote 1,217 266 (21.9%) 1.01 [0.75, 1.36] 1.22 [0.75, 1.97]
TE Urban 559 106 (19.0%) 0.85 [0.61, 1.19] 1.47 [0.87, 2.48]
CA Remote 469 100 (21.3%) 0.98 [0.70, 1.38] 1.11 [0.64, 1.9]
CA Urban 328 71 (21.7%) 1.00 1.00
Outcome Groups Total no. .. Coefficient [95% CI] Adjusted Coefficient[95% CI]
Newborns mean birthweight (in grams)j TE Remote 1,217 .. −179 [−254, −105] −137 [−216, −59]
TE Urban 559 .. −30 [−113, 54] 15 [−71,101]
CA Remote 469 .. −76 [−162, 11] −73 [−163, 17]
CA Urban 328 Constant: 3,282 [3,216, 3,349] 3,494 [3,342, 3,646]

a Unless otherwise stated.

b Antenatal visit model limited to mothers who had a pregnancy duration of 32 weeks or more and model adjusted for: age of mother, first pregnancy (Yes/No), four or more pregnancies, and diabetes in pregnancy (Yes/No).

c Smoking in pregnancy refers to any reported smoking during pregnancy and combined ‘smoking at first antenatal visit’ and ‘reported smoking at 36 weeks’. Model adjusted for: age of mother (continuous variable), four or more pregnancies (Yes/No), and reported alcohol use in pregnancy (Yes/No).

d Pain relief model limited to mothers who experienced labour and model adjusted for: age of mother, first pregnancy, four or more pregnancies, and out-of-hospital birth (Yes/No).

e Normal birth model adjusted for: age of mother, first pregnancy, four or more pregnancies, smoking, alcohol, diabetes in pregnancy, inadequate number of antenatal visits (Yes/No), out-of-hospital birth, epidural/spinal pain relief (Yes/No) and augmented labour (Yes/No).

f Healthy baby model adjusted for: age of mother, first pregnancy, four or more pregnancies, smoking, alcohol, diabetes, out-of-hospital birth, and non-instrumental vaginal birth.

g Preterm birth model adjusted for: age of mother, first pregnancy, four or more pregnancies, smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy, diabetes in pregnancy.

hLow birthweight (LBW) model adjusted for same variables as preterm birth model, as well as preterm birth (Yes/No).

i SC Admission model adjusted for same variables as LBW model, as well as LBW (Yes/No), Apgar score at 5 minutes of less than 7 (Yes/No), serious resuscitation (Yes/No) and non-instrumental vaginal birth (Yes/No).

j Birthweight (as a continuous variable) model adjusted for age same variables as LBW model.

Steenkamp et al.

Steenkamp et al. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2012 12:44   doi:10.1186/1471-2393-12-44

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