Table 2

Maternal and newborn characteristics and outcomes, by Indigenous status, remoteness, and region; NT 2003-2005
Maternal and neonatal characteristics NT-resident women (N = 7,560) Indigenous (N = 2,573)
Non-Indigenous (n = 4,987)a Indigenous (n = 2,573) Top End (n = 1,776) Central Australia (n = 797) Chi2or Fisher’s Test for trend
RemoteA(n = 334) P-value A vs B RemoteB(n = 1,686) UrbanC(n = 887) P-value B vs C Remoteb(n = 1,217) Urban(n = 559) Remote(n = 469) Urban(n = 328)
    Maternal
:
Mean maternal age in years (±SD)[95% Confidence Interval] 28.4 (±5.7) [27.8, 29.1] <0.001 23 (±5.8) [23.1, 23.7] 24.9 (±5.9) [24.5, 25.3] <0.001 23.7 (±5.9) [23.3, 24.0] 24.8 (±5.8) [24.4, 25.3] 22.7 (±5.8) [22.1, 23.3] 25.0 (±6.1) [24.4, 25.7] ..
Maternal age < 20 years 7.8% <0.001 31.1% 19.8% <0.001 28.6% 19.5% 37.5% 20.4% <0.001
Maternal age ≥ 35 years 16.8% <0.001 5.3% 7.1% 0.062 5.7% 7.0% 4.3% 7.3% 0.193
First pregnancy 37.4% 0.078 32.4% 30.6% 0.328 31.2% 30.8% 35.5% 30.2% 0.262
Fourth + pregnancy 14.7% <0.001 26.8% 24.5% 0.198 29.1% 24.7% 20.9% 24.1% 0.004
Less than four antenatal visits 6.3% 0.001 12.9% 15.2% 0.099 9.6% 17.2% 21.3% 11.9% <0.001
Smoking reported at first visit 24.0% <0.001 47.5% 51.2% 0.076 54.7% 53.0% 28.8% 48.2% <0.001
Smoking reported at 36 weeks 21.9% <0.001 44.5% 47.6% 0.142 52.4% 49.4% 24.1% 44.5% <0.001
Alcohol use reported at first visit 10.5% 0.522 9.4% 8.0% <0.001 8.9% 11.8% 10.9% 20.1% <0.001
Alcohol use reported at 36 weeks 5.7% 0.708 6.2% 11.6% <0.001 5.9% 8.8% 7.0% 16.5% <0.001
Diabetes in pregnancyc 6.5% 0.009 12.7% 12.5% 0.948 11.0% 10.9% 17.0% 15.5% 0.017
Out-of-hospital birthd <5 0.019 4.2% 0.7% <0.001 4.9% <5 2.4% <5 <0.001
Epidural/spinal pain relief 10.8% 0.003 6.2% 10.3% <0.001 5.5% 10.6% 8.1% 9.8% 0.001
Narcotics for pain relief 20.4% 0.703 21.3% 25.5% 0.016 21.6% 25.6% 20.5% 25.3% 0.109
Augmented labour 24.3% 0.137 28.2% 27.5% 0.697 26.5% 27.7% 32.8% 27.1% 0.071
Induced labour 23.4% 0.014 17.6% 18.6% 0.536 15.1% 18.3% 24.1% 19.2% <0.001
Vaginal birthe 68.7% 0.863 68.3% 73.6% 0.010 67.8% 72.8% 71.2% 75.0% 0.029
Instrumental vaginal birth 7.8% 0.272 6.2% 5.2% 0.312 6.2% 5.0% 6.2% 5.5% 0.775
Caesarean section (CS) 24.0% 0.661 25.1% 21.2% 0.027 26.1% 22.2% 22.6% 19.5% 0.048
Emergency CS as % of all CS 52.5% 0.002 70.5% 67.0% 0.396 73.5% 62.9% 61.3% 75.0% 0.027
Fetal distress recorded 15.2% 0.087 20.1% 20.0% 0.973 21.2% 22.5% 17.2% 15.5% 0.096
Episiotomy performed (vaginal births) 7.2% 0.695 7.5% 5.6% 0.113 6.7% 5.7% <5 <5 <0.001
3rd/4th degree tear (vaginal births) <5 0.351 1.4% 1.1% 0.714 1.5% 0.9% 1.1% 1.5% 0.522
Mother LOS ≥ 4 days: vaginal births 33.8% 0.013 45.0% 23.0% <0.001 53.2% 24.6% 24.6% 20.3% <0.001
Mother LOS ≥ 4 days: CS births 80.0% 0.052 88.9% 83.5% 0.154 92.1% 85.5% 79.3% 79.7% <0.001
    Neonatal
:
Stillbirth (Rate per 1,000 births) <5 0.489 7.7/1,000 <5 0.447 5.8/1,000 <5 12.8/1,000 <5 0.389
Apgar score < 7 at 5 minutes 2.7% 0.512 3.6% 3.2% 0.543 3.8% 2.9% 3.2% 3.7% 0.776
Newborn needed serious resuscitationf 10.8% 0.771 11.3% 10.0% 0.316 11.8% 8.6% 10.0% 12.5% 0.144
Preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation) 3.9% <0.001 12.2% 9.1% 0.020 12.7% 9.8% 10.7% 7.9% 0.054
Low birthweight (<2,500 g) 4.2% <0.001 10.9% 8.6% 0.061 11.8% 8.4% 8.5% 8.8% 0.054
Admission to special care (SC) 12.0% <0.001 21.7% 20.0% 0.300 21.9% 19.0% 21.3% 21.7% 0.567

< 5: Less than 5 counts – data not shown.

a This group includes 4,653 urban-dwelling non-Indigenous mothers for whom relevant data is not shown in Table 2.

b This group includes Communities 1 and 2 and is subdivided in Tables 4 and 5.

c Refers to any mention of diabetes in pregnancy, i.e., mother had either pre-existing diabetes or gestational diabetes recorded. We combined the variables pre-existing diabetes and gestational diabetes to describe ‘diabetes in pregnancy’, because of the small numbers of pre-existing diabetes cases (n = 53).

d Refers to planned home-births, births at community health centres, ‘born-before-arrival’ births, births in hostels, etc.

e Includes 98 vaginal breech cases. Most were preterm births and three were out-of-hospital births.

f Refers to resuscitation with mask and bag, external cardiac massage or intubation.

Steenkamp et al.

Steenkamp et al. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2012 12:44   doi:10.1186/1471-2393-12-44

Open Data