Table 3

Comparison of the prevalence of drug exposure in our study population with the one reported in the questionnaire-based PNSD and the results reported by other population

Sherwood et al. [25]

Pichini et al. [12,22]

Williamson et al. [23]

Mitsuhiro et al. [24]

PNSD [1]

Friguls et al [26]

Joya et al.


Year

1999

2005

2006

2007

2009

2010

2011


Place

London (UK)

Barcelona (Spain)

Glasgow (UK)

Sao Pablo (Brazil)

Spain

Ibiza (Spain)

Tenerife (Spain)


Matrix

Urine

Meconium

Meconium

Hair

Questionnaire

Maternal hair

Maternal hair


Trimester

1st

2nd - 3rd

2nd - 3rd

3rd

No pregnant

3rd

3rd


Population

general

Low-income

Low-income

Low-income

general

general

general


N

807

830

400

1000

23715

107

347


Cannabis (%)

14.5

5.3

13.2

4.0

13.2

10.3

0


Cocaine (%)

0.37

2.6

2.7

1.7

3.0

6.4

2.6


MDMA (%)

0.1

1.4

0.9

0


Opiates (%)

1.36

4.7

0.1

0

0


Any drug (%)

16.2

10.1

6.0

15.9

2.6


Joya et al. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2012 12:2   doi:10.1186/1471-2393-12-2

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