Table 3

Estimated effect of socio-demographic, social and perception- and service related factors on timing of pregnant women's first ANC visit in months

Univariate

Multivariate (N = 289)


Coeffb

(95% CI)

p-value

Coeffb

(95% CI)

p-value


Maternal factors

Parity (N = 405)

Primi

-0.47

(-0.76, -0.18)

0.002

-0.87

(-1.32 -0.42)

< 0.001

Multia

Adolescent/adult (N = 405)

Adolescent

-0.14

(-0.48, 0.19)

0.406

0.18

(-0.30, 0.65)

0.462

Adulta

Marital status (N = 404)

Married/Consensual uniona

Single

0.01

(-0.36, 0.39)

0.947

0.15

(-0.33, 0.63)

0.532

History of abort/stillbirth (N = 402)

No abort a

One or more abort

-0.23

(-0.51, 0.05)

0.107

-0.46

(-0.79, -0.13)

0.007

Education level (N = 405)

No or incomplete formal education

0.03

(-0.21, 0.27)

0.811

0.00

(-0.29, 0.29)

0.987

Primary + a

Ethnicity (N = 405)

Sukuma

0.54

(0.23, 0.86)

0.001

0.82

(0.44, 1.19)

< 0.001

Other ethnic groupa


ANC expectations, knowledge and perceived quality

Perceived ANC timing (N = 383)

Within first 3 months a

After first 3 months

0.09

(-0.17, 0.36)

0.498

-0.05

(-0.35, 0.24)

0.727

Knowledge of services (N = 405)

Lowa

High

0.30

(0.01, 0.59)

0.042

0.09

(-0.23, 0.41)

0.572

Perceived service quality (N = 319)

Gooda

Bad

0.79

(0.30, 1.27)

0.002

0.78

(0.20, 1.36)

0.009

Perceived health worker attitudes(N = 310)

Gooda

Bad

0.08

(-0.50, 0.67)

0.778

-0.57

(-1.21, 0.07)

0.082

Traditional medicine use (N = 402)

Yes

-0.31

(-0.73, 0.11)

0.142

-0.07

(-0.55, 0.41)

0.759

Noa


Pregnancy perception

Early recognition of pregnancy (N = 404)

Yesa

No

0.42

(0.16, 0.68)

0.002

0.47

(0.17, 0.77)

0.002

Waiting for quickening (N = 403)

Yes

0.21

(-0.06, 0.48)

0.130

0.15

(-0.15, 0.45)

0.323

Noa


Social and economic support

Money (N = 404)

Yesa

No

0.27

(0.02, 0.52)

0.036

0.28

(-0.02, 0.58)

0.064

Advised to attend ANC (N = 404)

Yes

-0.11

(-0.35, 0.14)

0.386

-0.11

(-0.40, 0.18)

0.449

Noa

Accompanied to clinic (N = 405)

Yes

-0.05

(-0.29, 0.20)

0.704

0.08

(-0.21, 0.37)

0.602

Noa

Supported by husband (N = 405)

Yesa

No

0.60

(0.10, 1.10)

0.019

0.69

(0.05, 1.33)

0.035


a Reference category, b Estimated effect derived from linear regression on the timing of the first ANC visit expressed as gestational age in months (f.e. primiparous women started ANC on average 0.47 month earlier than multiparous women). The coefficients in the multivariate model are adjusted for all listed variables

Gross et al. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2012 12:16   doi:10.1186/1471-2393-12-16

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