Table 1

Number of birth cohort studies that collected bio-genetic samples at various time periods
Biogenetic sample Time period; no. (%) of studies
n=46
1st 2nd 3rd At 0-6 7-18 19-60 5+
Trimester Trimester Trimester Birth Months Months Months Years
Maternal blood 8 11 9 7 3 4 2 1
(17.4%) (23.9%) (19.6%) (15.2%) (6.5%) (8.7%) (4.3%) (2.2%)
Paternal blood 1 1 1 - - - 1 3
(2.2%) (2.2%) (2.2%) (2.2%) (6.5%)
Cord blood - - - 14 - - - -
(30.4%)
Placenta - - - 9 - - - -
- - - (19.6%) - - - -
Umbilical cord - - - 3 - - - -
- - - (6.5%) - - - -
Offspring blood - - - - 4 2 3 4
(8.7%) (4.3%) (6.5%) (8.7%)
Meconium - - - 5 - - - -
(10.9%)
Breast milk - - - - 6 - - -
(13.0%)
Maternal urine 5 5 5 2 - - - -
(10.9%) (10.9%) (10.9%) (4.3%)
Paternal urine 1 - - - - - - -
(2.2%)
Offspring urine - - - - 2 1 1 2
(4.3%) (2.2%) (2.2%) (4.3%)
Maternal hair 3 2 1 3 2 1 1 -
(6.5%) (4.3%) (2.2%) (6.5%) (4.3%) (2.2%) (2.2%)
Paternal hair - - - - - 1 - -
- - - - - (2.2%) - -
Offspring hair - - - 1 1 1 1 1
(2.2%) (2.2%) (2.2%) (2.2%) (2.2%)
Maternal saliva 2 1 1 - 2 3 1 1
(4.3%) (2.2%) (2.2%) (4.3%) (6.5%) (2.2%) (2.2%)
Paternal saliva - 1 - - - - 1 1
(2.2%) (2.2%) (2.2%)
Offspring saliva - - - - 1 3 3 2
(2.2%) (6.5%) (6.5%) (4.3%)
Maternal nails - - 1 - - - - -
(2.2%)
Paternal nails - - - - - - - -
Offspring nails - - - - - - - -

Joly et al.

Joly et al. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2012 12:117   doi:10.1186/1471-2393-12-117

Open Data