Table 2

Adjusted multivariable logistic regression models for ante-partum and intra-partum risk factors associated with PPH (blood loss ≥500 mL) for vaginal deliveries

Model 1

Model 2

Model 3

Model 4

antepartum

intra-partum

AMTSL

Full model


OR for PPH

95% CI

OR for PPH

95% CI

OR for PPH

95% CI

OR for PPH

95% CI


    Ante-Partum

Age

< 30

1.00

-

-

1.00

30 +

1.47

(0.75,

2.88)

-

-

2.04

(0.92,

4.52)

Education

illiterate

0.83

-

-

1.00

literate

1.00

(0.39,

1.79)

-

-

0.62

(0.28,

1.42)

Parity

multiparous

1.21

-

-

1.00

nuliparous

1.00

(0.67,

2.19)

-

-

0.84

(0.40,

1.78)

Antenatal care

1 visit

1.00

-

-

1.00

No ANC

2.67

(0.58,

12.32)

1.61

(0.30,

8.51)

2-3 visits

7.02

(1.49,

33.01)

5.89

(1.13,

30.62)

4+ visits

10.63

(2.30,

49.03)

-

-

7.43

(1.44,

38.46)

History of PPH

None

1.00

-

-

1.00

Prior PPH

105.44

(15.14,

734.53)

-

-

305.14

(48.02,

1938.87)

Previous obstetric complications

none

1.00

-

-

1.00

prior non-PPH complications

0.26

(0.04,

1.84)

-

-

0.25

(0.02,

3.80)

Membranes

ruptured

1.00

-

-

1.00

intact

1.35

(0.73,

2.50)

-

-

1.06

(0.54,

2.09)

Anemia

Ante-partum hemoglobine> 11 mg/dl

1.00

-

-

1.00

Ante-partum hemoglobine < = 11 mg/dl

1.76

(0.98,

3.16)

-

-

2.73

(1.43,

5.23)

Cervical dilation on admission

up to 3 cm

1.00

-

-

1.00

4-7 cm

3.62

(0.51,

25.77)

-

-

4.60

(0.70,

30.38)

> 7 cm

3.67

(0.47,

28.62)

-

-

6.34

(0.87,

45.94)

    Intra-partum

Delivery

Spontaneous delivery

-

1.00

1.00

1.00

vaginal delivery with instruments

-

1.37

(0.13,

14.22)

1.35

(0.11,

15.87)

3.59

(0.35,

36.79)

Episiotomy

no

-

1.00

1.00

1.00

yes

-

1.60

(0.97,

2.63)

1.55

(0.94,

2.56)

1.72

(0.69,

4.30)

Labor augmentation

no

-

1.00

1.00

1.00

yes

-

1.77

(1.11,

2.81)

1.94

(1.17,

3.20)

2.37

(1.14,

4.93)

Complete placenta expulsion

yes

-

1.00

1.00

1.00

no

-

1.32

(0.55,

3.16)

2.91

(0.56,

15.07)

21.68

(4.41,

106.54)

Vaginal tears

no

-

1.00

1.00

1.00

yes

-

3.37

(0.59,

19.41)

1.70

(0.79,

3.67)

2.27

(0.94,

5.50)

Fetal weights

< 3500 mg

-

1.00

1.00

1.00

Macrosomia (> 3500 mg)

-

1.35

(0.85,

2.15)

1.59

(1.01,

2.50)

0.99

(0.53,

1.88)

Length of 1st and 2nd stage

< 1 hour

-

1.00

1.00

1.00

1 - 2.9 hours

-

2.42

(1.15, 5.06)

2.45

(1.14,

5.26)

1.95

(0.62,

6.15)

3 - 4.9 hours

-

3.25

(1.62,

6.53)

3.77

(1.86,

7.65)

4.93

(1.55,

15.70)

5 + hours

-

2.66

(1.22,

5.82)

3.12

(1.44,

6.74)

5.75

(1.73,

19.14)

AMTSL

Yes

-

1.00

-

-

No

-

9.44

(5.57,

16.01)

-

-

AMTSL components

Use of uterotonics in 3rd stage

yes

-

-

1.00

1.00

no

-

-

9.75

(4.58,

20.77)

11.26

(3.91,

32.47)

Early cord clamping

yes

-

-

1.00

1.00

no

-

-

1.36

(0.31,

6.04)

3.08

(0.52,

18.43)

Cord traction

yes

-

-

1.00

1.00

no

-

-

1.22

(0.21,

7.06)

8.26

(1.02,

67.00)

Uterine massage

yes

-

-

1.00

1.00

no

-

-

4.47

(0.94,

21.33)

0.64

(0.07,

5.58)


Prata et al. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2011 11:97   doi:10.1186/1471-2393-11-97

Open Data