Table 1

Distribution of ante-partum and intra-partum factors and crude odds ratios associated with PPH (blood loss ≥500 mL) for vaginal deliveries

PPH

No PPH

OR

p-value

95% CI

93 N (%)

2417 N (%)


    Ante-Partum

Age

< 30

72 (77.4)

1,892 (79.4)

1.00

30 +

21 (22.6)

492 (20.6)

1.12

0.650

(0.68, 1.84)

Education

illiterate

34 (37.8)

1,092 (45.8)

1.00

literate

56 (62.2)

1, 295 (54.2)

1.39

0.137

(0.90, 2.14)

Parity

multiparous

53 (61.6)

1,524 (64.85)

1.00

nuliparous

33 (38.4)

826 (35.15)

1.15

0.539

(0.74, 1.79)

Antenatal care

1 visit

2 (2.3)

275 (12.0)

1.00

No ANC

29 (33.3)

874 (38.1)

4.56

0.039

(1.08, 19.24)

2-3 visits

21 (24.1)

548 (23.9)

5.27

0.025

(1.22, 22.63)

4+ visits

35 (40.2)

597 (26.0)

8.06

0.004

(1.93, 33.76)

History of PPH

None

88 (94.6)

2,415 (99.9)

1.00

Prior PPH

5 (5.4)

2 (0.1)

68.61

< 0.001

(13.13, 358.51)

Previous obstetric complications

none

92 (98.9)

2,306 (95.4)

1.00

Other non-PPH

1 (1.1)

111 (4.6)

0.23

0.141

(0.03, 1.63)

Membranes

ruptured

24 (26.1)

614 (25.7)

1.00

intact

68 (73.9)

1,775 (74.3)

0.98

0.934

(0.61, 1.57)

Anemia

Ante-partum hemoglobine> 11 mg/dl

55 (74.3)

1,332 (77.8)

1.00

Ante-partum hemoglobine < = 11 mg/dl

19 (25.7)

380 (22.2)

1.21

0.480

(0.71, 2.07)

Cervical dilation on admission

up to 3 cm

4 (4.3)

161 (6.7)

1.00

4-7 cm

57 (62.0)

1,548 (64.8)

1.48

0.453

(0.53, 4.14)

> 7 cm

31 (33.7)

680 (28.5)

1.83

0.260

(0.64, 5.27)

    Intra-partum

Delivery

Spontaneous delivery

92 (98.9)

2,411 (99.8)

1.00

vaginal delivery with instruments

1 (1.1)

6 (0.2)

4.37

0.174

(0.52, 36.65)

Episiotomy

no

34 (37.0)

1,328 (55.8)

1.00

yes

58 (63.0)

1,052 (44.2)

2.15

< 0.001

(1.40, 3.31)

Labor augmentation

no

44 (47.3)

1,562 (64.7)

1.00

yes

49 (52.7)

854 (35.3)

2.04

0.001

(1.34, 3.09)

Complete placenta expulsion

yes

92 (98.9)

2,395 (99.5)

1.00

no

1 (1.1)

13 (0.5)

2.00

0.506

(0.26, 15.47)

Vaginal tears

no

82 (89.1)

2,216 (95.3)

1.00

yes

10 (10.9)

110 (4.7)

2.46

0.010

(1.24, 4.87)

Fetal weights

< 3500 mg

54 (59.3)

1,692 (71.7)

1.00

Macrosomia (> 3500 mg)

37 (40.1)

667 (28.3)

1.74

0.011

(1.13, 2.67)

Length of 1st and 2nd stage

< 1 hour

10 (11.0)

634 (26.7)

1.00

1 - 2.9 hours

27 (29.7)

670 (28.2)

2.55

0.012

(1.23, 5.32)

3 - 4.9 hours

34 (37.3)

629 (26.5)

3.43

0.001

(1.68, 7.00)

5 + hours

20 (22.0)

443 (18.6)

2.86

0.007

(1.33, 6.17)

AMTSL

Yes

62 (66.7)

2,281 (94.4)

1.00

No

31 (33.3)

136 (5.63)

8.39

< 0.001

(5.27, 13.35)

AMTSL components

Use of uterotonics in 3rd stage

yes

78 (83.9)

2,333 (96.6)

1.00

no

15 (16.1)

83 (3.4)

5.40

< 0.001

(2.98, 9.79)

Early cord clamping

yes

86 (92.5)

2,376 (98.3)

1.00

no

7 (7.5)

41 (1.7)

4.72

< 0.001

(2.06, 10.82)

Cord traction

yes

85 (91.4)

2,399 (99.3)

1.00

no

8 (8.6)

18 (0.7)

12.54

< 0.001

(5.31, 29.66)

Uterine massage

yes

82 (88.2)

2,383 (98.6)

1.00

no

11 (11.8)

34 (2.4)

9.40

< 0.001

(4.60, 19.21)


Prata et al. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2011 11:97   doi:10.1186/1471-2393-11-97

Open Data