Table 1

Criteria for including studies in the review

Inclusion criteria

Study design

Experimental or observational effectiveness evaluation, with control or comparator group


Socially disadvantaged or vulnerable populations*

Other specified at risk population: teenagers, obese pregnant women, substance users, alcohol misusers, women who are HIV positive


Intervention involving the organisation and/or delivery of:

• comprehensive antenatal care

• components of antenatal care provided in the context of normal antenatal care


• Stand alone interventions involving the provision of health or social care to pregnant women delivered as an adjunct to normal antenatal care


• stand-alone interventions targeting pregnant women not delivered and/or evaluated in conjunction with standard antenatal care

• clinical interventions, unless evaluated in the context of a broader package of antenatal care

• interventions with a focus on labour/birth or the periconceptional period

• interventions involving only opiate substitution


Standard antenatal care or a specified alternative model of antenatal care


• Preterm birth (or "preterm labour") expressed as the number/proportion of women delivering before 37 weeks gestation (or some other cut-off point <37 weeks)

• Any measure of neonatal/infant mortality, but excluding perinatal mortality

• Birth prevalence of congenital anomalies


Type of publication

Journal articles reporting primary research in English and non-English language journal articles with an English Language abstract

Geographical area

OECD member countries, excluding Mexico and Turkey**

Time period

Published 1990 onwards

*Including: women living in deprived areas, disadvantaged minority ethnic/racial groups, women in prison, travellers, homeless women, asylum seekers and refugees, recently arrived migrants/other immigrant groups, victims of abuse, women with mental illness/mental health problems, women with learning disabilities, sex workers.

**High-income countries with low infant mortality.

Hollowell et al. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2011 11:13   doi:10.1186/1471-2393-11-13

Open Data