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This article is part of the supplement: Global report on preterm birth & stillbirth: the foundation for innovative solutions and improved outcomes

Open Access Highly Accessed Review

Global report on preterm birth and stillbirth (1 of 7): definitions, description of the burden and opportunities to improve data

Joy E Lawn1, Michael G Gravett2, Toni M Nunes3, Craig E Rubens34, Cynthia Stanton5* and the GAPPS Review Group

Author Affiliations

1 Saving Newborn Lives/Save the Children, 11 South Way, Pinelands Cape Town, South Africa

2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington USA

3 Global Alliance to Prevent Prematurity and Stillbirth, an initiative of Seattle Children's, Seattle, Washington, USA

4 Department of Pediatrics at University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA

5 Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

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BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2010, 10(Suppl 1):S1  doi:10.1186/1471-2393-10-S1-S1

Published: 23 February 2010

Abstract

Introduction

This is the first of seven articles from a preterm birth and stillbirth report. Presented here is an overview of the burden, an assessment of the quality of current estimates, review of trends, and recommendations to improve data.

Preterm birth

Few countries have reliable national preterm birth prevalence data. Globally, an estimated 13 million babies are born before 37 completed weeks of gestation annually. Rates are generally highest in low- and middle-income countries, and increasing in some middle- and high-income countries, particularly the Americas. Preterm birth is the leading direct cause of neonatal death (27%); more than one million preterm newborns die annually. Preterm birth is also the dominant risk factor for neonatal mortality, particularly for deaths due to infections. Long-term impairment is an increasing issue.

Stillbirth

Stillbirths are currently not included in Millennium Development Goal tracking and remain invisible in global policies. For international comparisons, stillbirths include late fetal deaths weighing more than 1000g or occurring after 28 weeks gestation. Only about 2% of all stillbirths are counted through vital registration and global estimates are based on household surveys or modelling. Two global estimation exercises reached a similar estimate of around three million annually; 99% occur in low- and middle-income countries. One million stillbirths occur during birth. Global stillbirth cause-of-death estimates are impeded by multiple, complex classification systems.

Recommendations to improve data

(1) increase the capture and quality of pregnancy outcome data through household surveys, the main data source for countries with 75% of the global burden; (2) increase compliance with standard definitions of gestational age and stillbirth in routine data collection systems; (3) strengthen existing data collection mechanisms—especially vital registration and facility data—by instituting a standard death certificate for stillbirth and neonatal death linked to revised International Classification of Diseases coding; (4) validate a simple, standardized classification system for stillbirth cause-of-death; and (5) improve systems and tools to capture acute morbidity and long-term impairment outcomes following preterm birth.

Conclusion

Lack of adequate data hampers visibility, effective policies, and research. Immediate opportunities exist to improve data tracking and reduce the burden of preterm birth and stillbirth.