Table 3

Rate and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for adverse perinatal outcomes among the offspring of women with any form of hypertension, according to type of antihypertensive therapy received during pregnancy

Individual outcomes


Primary composite outcome*

Diseases of prematurity$

Ventilation > 1 day

Neonatal intensive care unit admission

Perinatal death


Type of antihypertensive therapy

Rate (%)**

Adjusted OR (95% CI)#

Rate (%)

Adjusted OR (95% CI)

Rate (%)

Adjusted OR (95% CI)

Rate (%)

Adjusted OR (95% CI)

Rate (%)

Adjusted OR (95% CI)


None

19.5

1.0

15.1

1.0

3.4

1.0

27.4

1.0

1.9

1.0

β-blocker

30.9

1.4 (0.9–2.2)

26.2

1.4 (0.9–9.2)

10.9

2.3 (0.9–5.9)

48.7

2.4 (1.6–3.5)

3.7

1.5 (0.6–3.4)

Non-β-blocker

56.7

5.0 (2.6–9.6)

49.1

4.4 (2.1–9.2)

24.6

6.9 (2.3–20.6)

77.2

9.9 (4.7–21.0)

5.8

2.6 (1.1–6.3)

Both β-blocker and non-β-blocker

59.2

2.9 (1.8–4.7)

55.6

2.8 (1.7–4.8)

31.0

3.7 (1.4–9.4)

87.4

18.2 (10.9–30.4)

7.1

3.1 (1.4–6.8)


*Defined as a composite of either hyaline membrane disease (HMD), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), periventricular hemorrhage (PVH), assisted ventilation > 1 day, or perinatal death after 20 weeks gestation and up to 30 days after birth. **Represents the rate for each perinatal outcome according to type of antihypertensive therapy $Includes HMD, NEC and/or PVH. #All odds ratios were adjusted for maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy weight, history of delivery before 34 weeks, history of hypertension in a previous pregnancy, cigarette smoking, pre-pregnancy diabetes mellitus, pre-pregnancy renal dysfunction, use of prednisone, receipt of betamethasone for fetal lung maturity, and gestational age at which blood pressure first increased above 140/90 mm Hg.

Ray et al. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2001 1:6   doi:10.1186/1471-2393-1-6

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