Table 5

Association between the structural location of white matter lesion (i.e., subcortical, periventricular, or regional) with two domains of cognitive function (i.e., memory and executive function/processing speed)
Reference Association
Groot et al. et al. [24] Controlled for subcortical, periventricular WMLs were associated with memory and executive function/processing speed.
Shenkin et al. [25] Subcortical and periventricular WMLs were not associated with any of the cognitive measurements.
Baune et al. [26] Subcortical WMLs were associated with memory.
As a subgroup of subcortical WMLs, infarction lesions were associated with executive function/processing speed.
Periventricular WMLs were not associated with any of the cognitive functions.
Kim et al. [27] Only periventricular WML was significantly correlated with memory and executive function/processing speed, when both the periventricular and subcortical WMLs were entered simultaneously into the regression model.
Silbert et al. [28] Change in subcortical WMLs (excluding infarction lesions) was associated with memory decline. This association was not true for periventricular WMLs.
McClleland et al. [21] White matter lesions were associated with executive function/processing speed, in all white matter regions of cerebrum, cerebellum, and basal ganglia.
Wright et al. [29] Subcortical WMLs (including infarction lesions) were associated with executive function/processing speed, in regions of frontal and deep white matter.
Kaplan et al. [30] White matter lesions were associated with memory and executive function/processing speed, in frontal regions.
Wakefield et al. [31] White matter lesions were associated with executive function/processing speed in white matter regions of posterior corona radiata and splenium of corpus callosum.
O’Brien et al. [32] White matter lesions were associated with speed of memory retrieval and executive function/processing speed.
Smith et al. [14] White matter lesions were associated with memory and executive function/processing speed. White matter lesions in the following locations were significantly associated with memory: right inferior temporal-occipital, left temporal-occipital periventricular, and right parietal periventricular white matter; and anterior limb of internal capsule. Also, WMLs in the following regions were significantly associated with executive function: the bilateral inferior frontal, temporal-occipital periventricular, right parietal periventricular, and prefrontal white matter; and the anterior limb of the internal capsule bilaterally.
Burns et al. [33] For non-demented participants, only associate memory was associated with periventricular WMLs. For participants with early-stage Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), memory and executive function/processing speed were associated with both periventricular and subcortical WMLs.
Ishii et al. [34] For CDR=0 group, anterior periventricular WML and a test of executive function/processing speed were significantly correlated.
Tullberg et al. [35] In non-demented individuals, increased volumes of frontal (specifically prefrontal and dorsolateral), parietal, and occipital WML were separately associated with lower executive function/processing speed scores.
Frontal WMLs were also associated with reduced memory function in non-demented group. No association was found for individuals with dementia.

Abbreviations: WML = White Matter Lesion; CDR = Clinical Dementia Rating Scale.

Bolandzadeh et al.

Bolandzadeh et al. BMC Neurology 2012 12:126   doi:10.1186/1471-2377-12-126

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